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Warum Staaten Ökosteuern statt Lizenzen einführen, und wann das schlecht für die Wohlfahrt ist

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  • Haucap, Justus
  • Kirstein, Roland

Abstract

In diesem Aufsatz untersuchen wir, warum Staaten Anreize haben, Umweltverschmutzung zu besteuern anstatt Umweltverschmutzungsrechte zu veräußern. Unser Modell berücksichtigt, dass Regierungen sowohl umweltpolitische Ziele als auch fiskalische oder industriepolitische Motive haben können. Wir zeigen, dass eine budgetorientierte Regierung als monopolistischer Anbieter von Verschmutzungsrechten Anreize hat, das Verschmutzungsniveau suboptimal niedrig zu halten, indem sie die Lizenzmenge künstlich verknappt und so den Lizenzpreis erhöht. Dabei berücksichtigen wir, dass Lizenzen dauerhaft nutzbare Güter sind und dass der Staat als monopolistischer Anbieter der Lizenzen Anreize hat, nach Abschluss der ersten Verkaufsrunde weitere Lizenzen zu verkaufen, um so die Einnahmen zu steigern. Werden Verschmutzungsrechte jedoch nicht dauerhaft verkauft, sondern stattdessen Emissionen mit einer Steuer belegt, so ist der budgetmaximierende Steuersatz in jeder Periode derselbe. Damit bleibt in jeder Periode auch der Schadstoffausstoß auf demselben (suboptimal niedrigen) Niveau, bei dem zwar das Steueraufkommen, nicht aber die Wohlfahrt maximiert wird. In einem Lizenzregime ist es dagegen eher zu erwarten, dass die wohlfahrtsmaximierende Emissionsmenge erreicht wird, weil der Staat sich nicht glaubwürdig auf das monopolistische Niveau festlegen kann. Dieses Argument für ein Lizenzregime ergänzt die bekannten Argumente pro Umweltlizenzen, die sich auf Informationsasymmetrien und Innovationsanreize beziehen. -- The paper examines the incentives of Governments to introduce green taxes instead of emission licenses. We take into account the fact that licenses are durable goods, and distinguish Governements that may have fiscal goals as well as ecological ones. Taxes solve the credibility problem a monopoly supplier of licenses would face, and lead to a suboptimal low emission level in each period. From welfare point of view, our model provides a new argument in favor of licenses that is different from the traditional arguments (like informational asymmetries or incentives to innovate).

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Saarland University, CSLE - Center for the Study of Law and Economics in its series CSLE Discussion Paper Series with number 2002-07.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:csledp:200207

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Keywords: Emissionszertifikate; Ökosteuer; Glaubwürdigkeit; Zeitinkonsistenz; dauerhafte Güter; politische Ökonomie; Emissions Permits; Pollution Tax; Credibility; Time Inconsistency; Durable Goods; Political Economy;

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  1. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Tirole, Jean, 1996. "Pollution permits and environmental innovation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1-2), pages 127-140, October.
  2. Haucap, Justus & Kirstein, Roland, 2003. " Government Incentives When Pollution Permits Are Durable Goods," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 115(1-2), pages 163-83, April.
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