The impact of order size on stock liquidity: a representative study
AbstractLiquidity, the ease of trading an asset, strongly varies between different sizes of stock positions. We analyze this aspect using the Xetra Liquidity Measure (XLM), which calculates daily, weighted spread for impatient traders transacting against the limit order book. For this measure, we have data for 160 German stocks over 5.5 years, which allows us a representative analysis of the order-size impact on liquidity cost and its main statistical characteristics. We find that in the sample period average liquidity costs rose to over 100bp in large DAX and to 460bp in large SDAX positions. Over the last 5.5 years, liquidity has equally improved across all order sizes. Liquid position sizes, however, suffered less badly during the recent sub-prime crises, which represents another type of the flight-to-liquidity. As the basis for further theoretical analysis, we find that trends in liquidity levels and inefficiencies in liquidity prices of large positions generate non-normality in the liquidity distribution. We also show that - as a rule of thumb - liquidity of an order size relative to market value and transaction volume is constant across stocks and time. While order size is not the most important liquidity determinant, doubling order size increases liquidity cost by 5-10% on average when accounting for other differences in stocks. --
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS), Technische Universität München in its series CEFS Working Paper Series with number 2008-09.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
asset liquidity; liquidity cost; price impact; weighted spread; Xetra liquidity measure (XLM);
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
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- Gann, Philipp, 2009. "Liquidität, Risikoeinstellung des Kapitalmarktes und Konjunkturerwartung als Preisdeterminanten von Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) - Eine simulationsgestützte Analyse," Discussion Papers in Business Administration 10582, University of Munich, Munich School of Management.
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