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Ecological Footprint Inequality across countries: the role of environment intensity, income and interaction effects

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  • Juan Antonio Duro

    ()
    (Department of Economics, CREIP and XREAP, Rovira i Virgili University)

  • Jordi Teixidó-Figueras

    ()
    (Department of Economics, CREIP and XREAP, Rovira i Virgili University)

Abstract

Recently, White (2007) analysed the international inequalities in Ecological Footprints per capita (EF hereafter) based on a two-factor decomposition of an index from the Atkinson family (Atkinson (1970)). Specifically, this paper evaluated the separate role of environment intensity (EF/GDP) and average income as explanatory factors for these global inequalities. However, in addition to other comments on their appeal, this decomposition suffers from the serious limitation of the omission of the role exerted by probable factorial correlation (York et al. (2005)). This paper proposes, by way of an alternative, a decomposition of a conceptually similar index like Theil’s (Theil, 1967) which, in effect, permits clear decomposition in terms of the role of both factors plus an inter-factor correlation, in line with Duro and Padilla (2006). This decomposition might, in turn, be extended to group inequality components (Shorrocks, 1980), an analysis that cannot be conducted in the case of the Atkinson indices. The proposed methodology is implemented empirically with the aim of analysing the international inequalities in EF per capita for the 1980-2007 period and, amongst other results, we find that, indeed, the interactive component explains, to a significant extent, the apparent pattern of stability observed in overall international inequalities.

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File URL: http://www.pcb.ub.edu/xreap/aplicacio/fitxers/XREAP2012-17.pdf
File Function: First version, 2012
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File URL: http://www.pcb.ub.edu/xreap/aplicacio/fitxers/XREAP2012-17.pdf
File Function: Revised version, 2012
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP) in its series Working Papers with number XREAP2012-17.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2012
Date of revision: Oct 2012
Handle: RePEc:xrp:wpaper:xreap2012-17

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Keywords: ecological footprint; international environmental distribution; inequality decomposition.;

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References

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  1. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
  2. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
  3. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  4. van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M. & Verbruggen, Harmen, 1999. "Spatial sustainability, trade and indicators: an evaluation of the 'ecological footprint'," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 61-72, April.
  5. Steinberger, Julia K. & Krausmann, Fridolin & Eisenmenger, Nina, 2010. "Global patterns of materials use: A socioeconomic and geophysical analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1148-1158, March.
  6. Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2010. "On the automatic application of inequality indexes in the analysis of the international distribution of environmental indicators," Working Papers 2072/151617, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  7. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers XREAP2012-15, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Sep 2012.
  8. Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
  9. White, Thomas J., 2007. "Sharing resources: The global distribution of the Ecological Footprint," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 402-410, December.
  10. Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January.
  11. Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-20, July.
  12. Andersson, Jan Otto & Lindroth, Mattias, 2001. "Ecologically unsustainable trade," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 113-122, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2014. "Spatial Polarization of the Ecological Footprint distribution," Working Papers XREAP2014-02, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Feb 2014.
  2. Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2013. "The Building Blocks of International Ecological Footprint inequality: A Regression-Base Decomposition," Working Papers 2072/211883, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  3. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers XREAP2012-15, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Sep 2012.
  4. Grunewald, Nicole & Jakob, Michael & Mouratiadou, Ioanna, 2014. "Decomposing inequality in CO2 emissions: The role of primary energy carriers and economic sectors," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 183-194.

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