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The International Drivers of Domestic Airline Mergers in Twenty Nations: Integrating Industrial Organization and International Business

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  • Joseph A. Clougherty

Abstract

The domestic airline merger phenomenon of the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a great deal of Industrial Organization (IO) literature; yet, that literature neglected non-US domestic mergers and potential for international competitive gains. Using an International Business perspective to complement an IO analysis, I argue that factoring international competitive incentives helps explain domestic airline merger activity. A Cournot model of airline competition illustrates that domestic mergers, via enhanced domestic networks and reduced domestic competition, generate international competitive gains. Further, empirical tests - using a structural-equations approach on panel data covering international city-pair market segments - support domestic mergers improving international competitiveness. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Was die inländischen Fluglinien in 20 Ländern zur Fusion getrieben hat. Eine integrierte industrieökonomische und betriebswirtschaftliche Analyse des internationalen Wettbewerbs) In der Industrieökonomik hat das Phänomen von Fusionen inländischer Fluggesellschaften in den späten 1980er und frühen 1990er Jahren viel wissenschaftliche Literatur angeregt. Die einschlägigen Forschungsarbeiten behandeln jedoch ausschließlich inländische Fusionen in den U.S.A. und lassen damit den Aspekt des internationalen Wettbewerbs außer Acht. In dieser Untersuchung, die die industrieökonomische Analyse um die Perspektive der internationalen Betriebswirtschaft ergänzt, wird gezeigt, dass die Anreize des internationalen Wettbewerb in das Erklärungsmodell für nationale Fusionen von Fluglinien integriert werden können. Anhand eines Cournot-Modells des Wettbewerbs zwischen Fluggesellschaften kann dargelegt werden, wie Fusionen zu einem erweiterten inländischen Netz an Flugverbindungen und verminderten Konkurrenzdruck im Inland führen und so die Position der fusionierten Fluglinie im internationalen Wettbewerb stärken. Dieses Ergebnis wird von empirischen Tests, die eine Struckturvergleichsmethode für Paneldaten über einen internationalen Städtevergleich der Marktsegmente verwenden, gestützt.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG) in its series CIG Working Papers with number SP II 2005-06.

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Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2005
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Managerial and Decision Economics , Vol. 2006, pp. 75-93.
Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:spii2005-06

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Keywords: airline-mergers; imperfect-competition; international-determinants;

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References

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  1. Joseph A Clougherty, 2001. "Globalization and the Autonomy of Domestic Competition Policy: An Empirical Test on the World Airline Industry," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(3), pages 459-478, September.
  2. Morrison, Steven A & Winston, Clifford, 1987. "Empirical Implications and Tests of the Contestability Hypothesis," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(1), pages 53-66, April.
  3. Kim, E Han & Singal, Vijay, 1993. "Mergers and Market Power: Evidence from the Airline Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 549-69, June.
  4. Jan K. Brueckner, 2003. "International Airfares in the Age of Alliances: The Effects of Codesharing and Antitrust Immunity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 105-118, February.
  5. James A. Brander & Barbara J. Spencer, 1980. "Tariffs and the Extraction of Foreign Monopoly Rents under Potential Entry," Working Papers 414, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  6. Brander, James A. & Zhang, Anming, 1993. "Dynamic oligopoly behaviour in the airline industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 407-435, September.
  7. Brueckner, Jan K. & Spiller, Pablo T., 1991. "Competition and mergers in airline networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 323-342, September.
  8. Clougherty, Joseph A., 2002. "US domestic airline mergers: the neglected international determinants," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 557-576, April.
  9. Windle, Robert J. & Dresner, Martin E., 1992. "Partial productivity measures and total factor productivity in the air transport industry: Limitations and uses," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 435-445, November.
  10. Cason, T.N., 1992. "The Strategic Value of Asymmetric Information Access for Cournot Competitors," Papers 9304, Southern California - Department of Economics.
  11. Panzar, John C & Willig, Robert D, 1981. "Economies of Scope," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 268-72, May.
  12. Brueckner, Jan K & Spiller, Pablo T, 1994. "Economies of Traffic Density in the Deregulated Airline Industry," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(2), pages 379-415, October.
  13. Brueckner, Jan K & Whalen, W Tom, 2000. "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 503-45, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Joseph A. Clougherty & Anming Zhang, 2008. "Domestic Rivalry and Export Performances: Theory and Evidence from International Airline Markets," CIG Working Papers SP II 2008-12, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  2. Melnik, Arie & Shy, Oz & Stenbacka, Rune, 2008. "Assessing market dominance," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 63-72, October.

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