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The Determinants of the Migration Decision of IT-graduates from Pakistan: Empirical Evidence for the Design of a German "Green Card"

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  • Talat Mahmood
  • Klaus Schömann
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    Abstract

    We analyse determinants of migration decision of the 1,500 IT-Graduates from Pakistan. The results show a high migration propensity and that economic factors such as better career positions, high income and a better living standard tend to be significantly more important than the socio-political as well as institutional factors (such as residence permit, racial tolerance, language/culture and social networks). A location comparison between Germany and the USA shows that the interviewees consider income, social networks, residence permit and language/culture significantly higher for the USA than for Germany. Other factors do not show any statistically significant differences between Germany and the USA. We find evidence for a competition between countries for "high potentials" from Pakistan. Accordingly we discuss some implications for the design of a German "Green Card". ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Die Determinanten der Migrationsentscheidung von IT-Hochschulabsolventen aus Pakistan: Empirische Befunde zum Design einer deutschen "Green Card") Wir testen Forschungshypothesen aus migrationstheoretischen Ansätzen anhand einer Stichprobe von 1500 kurz vor dem Studienabschluss stehenden IT-Hochschulabsolventen aus Pakistan. Die repräsentative Befragung wurde im Sommer 2001 landesweit in Pakistan durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe der Varianzanalyse wird die Wirkung der ökonomischen sowie gesell-schaftspolitischen Einflussfaktoren auf die Migrationsbereitschaft der Hochschulabsolventen untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine hohe generelle Migrationsbereitschaft in Industrieländer unter den Befragten. Ökonomische Gründe spielen für die Migrationsentscheidung eine viel wichtigere Rolle als andere institutionelle oder gesellschaftspolitische Aspekte im Herkunfts- und Empfängerland. Der Signifikanztest der einzelnen Einflussfaktoren bestätigt, dass ökonomische Gründe wie gute Karrieremöglichkeiten, hohes Einkommen und besserer Lebensstandard bei allen Empfängerländern signifikant wichtiger sind als die gesellschafts-politischen Determinanten (wie Ausländerfeindlichkeit, Aufenthaltserlaubnis, Sprache und Soziale Netzwerke). Beim konkreten Standortvergleich zwischen Deutschland und dem klassischen Immigrationsland USA bewerten die Befragten das Einkommen, die sozialen Netzwerke, die Aufenthaltsdauer und die Sprache für die USA signifikant höher als für Deutschland. Andere Faktoren weisen keine statistisch signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen Deutschland und den USA auf. Im Wettbewerb um die besten IT-Experten, ist demnach die Ausgestaltung der Green Card in wesentlichen Zügen vergleichbar der USA zu organisieren.

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    Paper provided by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG) in its series CIG Working Papers with number FS IV 02-03a.

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    Length: 29 pages
    Date of creation: Feb 2002
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    Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv02-03a

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    1. Nielsen, Helena Skyt & Rosholm, Michael & Smith, Nina & Husted, Leif, 2001. "Qualifications, Discrimination, or Assimilation? An Extended Framework for Analysing Immigrant Wage Gaps," IZA Discussion Papers 365, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    7. Bartel, Ann P, 1989. "Where Do the New U.S. Immigrants Live?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 371-91, October.
    8. repec:ilo:ilowps:338944 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Ralph Rotte & Michael Vogler, 2000. "The effects of development on migration: Theoretical issues and new empirical evidence," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 485-508.
    10. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
    11. Regets, Mark, 2001. "Research and Policy Issues in High-Skilled International Migration: A Perspective with Data from the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 366, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Klaus F. Zimmermann, 1993. "Ökonomische Konsequenzen der Migration für den heimischen Arbeitsmarkt," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 129(III), pages 283-301, September.
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