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Why Mergers Reduce Profits and Raise Share Prices: A Theory of Preemptive Mergers

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  • Sven-Olof Fridolfsson
  • Johan Stennek

Abstract

We explain the empirical puzzle why mergers reduce profits and raise share prices. If being an "insider" is better than being an "outsider," firms may merge to preempt their partner merging with a rival. The stock-value of the insiders is increased, since the risk of becoming an outsider is eliminated. We also explain why shareholders of targets gain while acquirers typically break even. These results are derived in an endogenousmerger model, predicting the conditions under which mergers occur, when they occur, and how the surplus is shared. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Warum Fusionen Profite reduzieren und Aktienpreise steigen lassen) Es wird ein "Mechanismus der Gewinnung eines Vorsprungs durch Fusion" aufgezeigt, der eventuell das empirische Rätsel, warum Fusionen Profite reduzieren und Aktienpreise steigen lassen, erklären kann. Eine Fusion kann starke negative externe Effekte bei den Unternehmen auslösen, die nicht an der Fusion beteiligt sind. Wenn es besser ist ein "Insider" zu sein als ein "Outsider", kann es sein, dass Firmen Fusionieren um dem zuvorzukommen, dass ihre Partner mit jemand anderem fusionieren. Desweiteren ist der Wert eines fusionierenden Unternehmens vor der Fusion niedrig, da er das Risiko ein Outsider zu werden reflektiert. Diese Ergebnisse werden aus einem Modell endogener Fusionen abgeleitet, welches die Bedingungen unter denen eine Fusion stattfindet, wann sie stattfindet und wie der Überschuss verteilt werden wird, vorhersagt.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG) in its series CIG Working Papers with number FS IV 01-26.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2001
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in the Journal of European Economic Association , Vol. 3(5), September 2005, pp. 1083-1104.
Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv01-26

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Keywords: Mergers; Acquisitions; Defensive Mergers; Coalition Formation;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ivaldi, Marc & Motis, Jrissy, 2007. "Mergers as Auctions," CEPR Discussion Papers 6434, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Albert Banal‐Estañol & Jo Seldeslachts, 2011. "Merger Failures," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 589-624, 06.
  3. Kastrinaki, Zafeira & Stoneman, Paul, 2012. "The drivers of merger waves," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 493-495.
  4. Granier, Laurent & Podesta, Marion, 2010. "Bundling and Mergers in Energy Markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1316-1324, November.
  5. Andre Betzer & Marc Goergen, 2011. "Disentangling the Link Between Stock and Accounting Performance in Acquisitions," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp11010, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
  6. Albert Banal‐Estañol & Paul Heidhues & Rainer Nitsche & Jo Seldeslachts, 2010. "Screening And Merger Activity," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(4), pages 794-817, December.
  7. Zhou, Wen, 2008. "Endogenous horizontal mergers under cost uncertainty," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 903-912, July.
  8. Steven Brakman & Harry Garretsen & Charles van Marrewijk, 2007. "Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: On Revealed Comparative Advantage And Merger Waves," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-013/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  9. Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof & Stennek, Johan, 2005. "Hold-up of anti-competitive mergers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(9-10), pages 753-775, December.
  10. Kamerbeek, S.P., 2009. "Merger Performance and Efficiencies in Horizontal Merger Policy in the US and the EU," MPRA Paper 18064, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. James Gaisford & Stefan Lutz, 2007. "A Multi-Product Framework Generating Waves of Mergers and Divestitures," ICER Working Papers 36-2007, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
  12. Jrisy Motis, 2007. "Mergers and Acquisitions Motives," Working Papers 0730, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  13. Yasuhiko Nakamura, 2011. "Strategic managerial delegation and cross-border mergers," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 104(1), pages 49-89, September.
  14. Riccardo Calcagno & Sonia Falconieri, 2008. "White Knights and the Corporate Governance of Hostile Takeovers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-118/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  15. Banal-Estanol, Albert & Macho-Stadler, Ines & Seldeslachts, Jo, 2008. "Endogenous mergers and endogenous efficiency gains: The efficiency defence revisited," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 69-91, January.

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