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Gender Pay Gap in Poland

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  • Michal Grajek

Abstract

The gender pay gap under central planning and its changes in the course of transition have only lately attracted the attention of researchers. Only few papers focused on comparison between two economic regimes, pre and post reform, having reported narrowing gap for all East European countries. This paper adds more detailed study of timing of the gap changes to existing evidence. This in turn allows to identify which mechanisms of transition were responsible for these changes. It investigates the earnings gap between females and males in Poland over the years 1987-1996, i.e. in the last years of central planning and during the period of transition to market economy. The JMP decomposition, which accounts for changes in overall wage dispersion over time beyond Oaxaca's standard decomposition, is applied on large set of HBS data and reveals some interesting results. The year of giving away the power by the communists (1989) turned out to be far more important in terms of improving relative position of women than the actual year of launching the reform package (1990) and all the following years of transition. Females had gained substantially due to the structural shift in the very first years of the new economic system and the improvements have slowed down or even reversed in the next years, probably due to the "statistical" discrimination. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Die Verhandlungsmacht einer Koalition in parallelen Verhandlungen: Die Vorteile aus Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen regionaler Kabelbetreiber in den USA) Ausgehend von zwei unabhängigen bilateralen Monopolen, werden in diesem Beitrag die Auswirkungen von horizontalen Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen auf die Verhandlungsmacht einer Marktseite untersucht. Als Beispiel einer solchen Marktstruktur wird das Verhandlungsproblem zwischen US-amerikanischen Kabelbetreibern und lokalen Fernsehstationen in zwei von einander unabhängigen Märkten betrachtet. Es wird gezeigt, daß sich ein Zusammenschluß auf einer Marktseite lohnen kann, weil sich hierdurch die Verhandlungsmacht der integrierten Unternehmung erhöhen kann. Verhandelt ein horizontal integriertes Unternehmen in mehreren Märkten, so nimmt es in jedem einzelnen Markt die Verhandlungslösung der anderen Märkte als gegeben an. Würde die Verhandlung in einem Markt scheitern, bekäme das integrierte Unternehmen immer noch Zahlungen von den anderen Märkten. Falls dies das Unternehmen glaubwürdig höhere Forderungen stellen läßt, erhöht dies die Verhandlungsmacht des integrierten Unternehmens, was als fall-back position Effekt bezeichnet wird. Des weiteren zeigt der Artikel, daß das Aufteilen des Verhandlungsrisikos auf mehrere Personen deren Verhandlungsmacht erhöhen kann, was als risk-sharing Effekt bezeichnet wird. Aus verhandlungstheoretischer Sicht werden in diesem Artikel erstmalig die Präferenzen einer Koalition durch die Aggregation der Präferenzen ihrer Mitglieder hergeleitet.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG) in its series CIG Working Papers with number FS IV 01-13.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2001
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Economics of Planning , 36(1), 2003, pp. 23-44.
Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv01-13

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Keywords: Earnings Differentials; Discrimination; Gender; Decomposition; Transition Economy; Planned Economy; Poland;

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References

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  1. Elizabeth Brainerd, 2000. "Women in transition: Changes in gender wage differentials in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(1), pages 138-162, October.
  2. Hunt, Jennifer, 1998. "The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1805, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Eswar Prasad & Michael P. Keane, 2002. "Changes in the Structure of Earnings During the Polish Transition," IMF Working Papers 02/135, International Monetary Fund.
  4. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
  5. Milan Vodopivec & Peter F. Orazem, 2000. "Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 283-303.
  6. Levy, Frank & Murnane, Richard J, 1992. "U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1333-81, September.
  7. Constantin G. Ogloblin, 1999. "The Gender earnings differential in the Russian transition economy," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(4), pages 602-627, July.
  8. Schultz, Theodore W, 1975. "The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 827-46, September.
  9. Jan Rutkowski, 1996. "High skills pay off: the changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 4(1), pages 89-112, 05.
  10. Dennis J. Aigner & Glen G. Cain, 1977. "Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(2), pages 175-187, January.
  11. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Dorota Witkowska, 2013. "Gender Disparities in the Labor Market in the EU," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 331-354, November.
  2. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2013. "The Goodwill Effect? Female Access to the Labor Market Over Transition: A Multicountry Analysis," Working Papers 2013-19, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
  3. Mariusz Kaszubowski & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2014. "Salary and reservation wage gender gaps in Polish academia," GUT FME Working Paper Series A 19, Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology.
  4. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse, 2006. "A comparative analysis of promoting pay equity : models and impacts," ILO Working Papers 399524, International Labour Organization.
  5. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse, 2006. "Analyse comparative de la mise en oeuvre du droit à l'égalité de rémunération : modèles et impacts," ILO Working Papers 392033, International Labour Organization.
  6. Petreski, Marjan & Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica & Petreski, Blagica, 2014. "Gender wage gap when women are highly inactive: Evidence from repeated imputations with Macedonian data," MPRA Paper 57226, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Brainerd, Elizabeth, 2010. "The Demographic Transformation of Post-Socialist Countries," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Working Paper W, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

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