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Policy-Motivated Candidates, Noisy Platforms, and Non-Robustness

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  • Johan Lagerlöf

Abstract

A model of a two-candidate election is developed in which the candidates are mainly office-motivated but also to some arbitrarily small extent policy-motivated, and their chosen platforms are to some arbitrarily small extent noisy. The platforms’ being noisy means that if a candidate has chosen a particular platform, the voters’ perception is that she has, with positive probability, actually chosen some other platform. It is shown that (i) an equilibrium in which the candidates play pure exists whether or not there is a Condorcet winner among the policy alternatives, and (ii) in this equilibrium the candidates choose their ideal points, which means that the platforms do not converge. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Politikmotivierte Kandidaten, Plattformen mit Rauschen und Nichtrobustheit) In der Arbeit werden die Bedingungen identifiziert, unter denen im Gleichgewicht eines symmetrischen Modells einige, in der Produktionskette vorgelagerte Firmen vertikale Trennung wählen, während andere sich für vertikale Integration entscheiden. Ein vertikal getrenntes Unternehmen wägt die fixen Vertragskosten gegen den strategischen Vorteil eines Vertrages (mit gespaltenem Tarif und exklusiven Vertriebsrechten) mit dem nachgelagerten Einzelhändler ab. Die Koexistenz der beiden Organisationsformen im Gleichgewicht entsteht, wenn den nachgelagerten Cournot-Oligopolisten, die fast perfekte Substitute produzieren, beobachtbare und nicht nachverhandelbare Verträge angeboten werden. Die Koexistenz der Organisationsformen im Gleichgewicht tritt weniger häufig auf, wenn die Annahmen bezüglich der Beobachtbarkeit der Verträge und der Möglichkeit sich zu binden, gelockert werden.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG) in its series CIG Working Papers with number FS IV 00-17.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2000
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Public Choice , 114(3-4), 2003, pp. 319-347.
Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv00-17

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Keywords: Electoral Competition; Policy Motivation; Noisy Commitment; Convergence; Robustness;

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  1. Georg Kirchsteiger & Werner Güth & Klaus Ritzberger, 1998. "Imperfectly observable commitments in n-player games," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/5907, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  2. Bhaskar, V. & van Damme, Eric, 2002. "Moral Hazard and Private Monitoring," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 16-39, January.
  3. Persson, Torsten & Tabellini, Guido, 1999. "Political economics and macroeconomic policy," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 22, pages 1397-1482 Elsevier.
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  5. Levine, David K. & Martinelli, Cesar, 1998. "Reputation with Noisy Precommitment," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 55-75, January.
  6. Steffen Huck & Wieland Mueller, 1998. "Perfect versus imperfect observability---An experimental test of Bagwell's result," Experimental 9804001, EconWPA.
  7. Kyle Bagwell, 1992. "Commitment and Observability in Games," Discussion Papers 1014, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  8. Jorg Oechssler & Karl Schlag, 1997. "An Evolutionary Analysis of Bagwell's Example," Game Theory and Information 9704001, EconWPA, revised 11 Apr 1997.
  9. Alesina, Alberto, 1988. "Credibility and Policy Convergence in a Two-Party System with Rational Voters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 796-805, September.
  10. McKelvey, Richard D, 1979. "General Conditions for Global Intransitivities in Formal Voting Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1085-1112, September.
  11. Avinash Dixit & Gene M. Grossman & Faruk Gul, 2000. "The Dynamics of Political Compromise," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 531-568, June.
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