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Explicit Evidence on an Implicit Contract

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  • Andrew T. Young

    (Department of Economics, West Virginia University)

  • Daniel Levy

    (Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University)

Abstract

We offer the first direct evidence of an implicit contract in a goods market. The evidence we offer comes from the market for Coca-Cola. We demonstrate that the Coca-Cola Company left a substantial amount of written evidence of its implicit contract with its consumers—a very explicit form of an implicit contract. The contract represented the promise of a five cent (nominal) price and adherence to the “Secret Formula”. In general, the implicit nature of such contracts makes observation difficult. To overcome this difficulty, we adopt a narrative approach. Based on the analysis of a large number of historical documents obtained from the Coca-Cola Archives and other sources, we offer evidence of the Coca-Cola Company both acknowledging and acting on this implicit contract. We also make another unique contribution by exploring quality as a margin of adjustment available to Coca-Cola. The implicit contract included a promise not only of a constant nominal price but also a constant quality (i.e., 6.5 oz. of the Secret Formula). During a period of over 70 years, we find evidence of only a single case of true quality change. By studying the margin of adjustment the Coca-Cola Company chose in response to changes in market conditions, we demonstrate that the perceived costs of breaking the implicit contract were large. We argue that one piece of direct evidence on the magnitude of these costs is the aftermath “New Coke’s” introduction in 1985.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics, West Virginia University in its series Working Papers with number 10-07.

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Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wvu:wpaper:10-07

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Web page: http://www.be.wvu.edu/phd_economics/
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Keywords: Implicit Contract; Explicit Contract; Invisible Handshake; Customer Market; Long-Term Relationship; Price Rigidity; Nickel Coke; Coca-Cola;

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Cited by:
  1. Alexander L. Wolman, 2000. "The frequency and costs of individual price adjustments," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Fall, pages 1-22.
  2. Daniel Levy, 2006. "Price Rigidity and Flexibility: New Empirical Evidence," Emory Economics 0611, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
  3. Levy, Daniel, 2007. "Price Rigidity and Flexibility: Recent Theoretical Developments," MPRA Paper 2761, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Söderberg, Johan, 2011. "Customer markets and the welfare effects of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 206-219.
  5. Andrew T. Young & Alexander K. Blue, 2007. "Retail prices during a change in monetary regimes: evidence from Sears, Roebuck catalogs, 1938-1951," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(7), pages 763-775.
  6. Georg Muller & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Daniel Levy, 2006. "Holiday Non-Price Rigidity and Cost of Adjustment," Working Papers 2006-4, Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University.
  7. Georg Müller & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Daniel Levy, 2007. "Non-price rigidity and cost of adjustment," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(7), pages 817-832.

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