Banking Industry Consolidation: Efficiency Issues
AbstractFailures, intra-company mergers of affiliate banks, and inter-company mergers and acquisitions together account for the disappearance of more than 4000 bank charters since 1987. This process of consolidation is beneficial if it drives inefficient banking organizations from the market and if it facilitates increased efficiency in the banking organizations that survive. In this paper, we consider the findings reported in previous studies and present results from new research of our own in an attempt to determine the impact of consolidation on banking industry efficiency. New evidence presented here suggests that failed banks are significantly less efficient than their peers 5 to 6 years prior to failure and that this performance differential often becomes evident before the appearance of major loan quality problems. Consistent with existing evidence, new evidence drawn from an event study indicates that intra-company consolidation is likely to have a small but significantly positive impact on holding company efficiency and profitability. Finally, both new and existing research on inter- company bank mergers finds that many of these transactions have a potential for efficiency gains that is not systematically exploited postmerger, results that suggest a non-efficiency motivation for bank mergers. When considered together, the results presented here suggest that efficiency is a useful indicator of a bank's competitive viability, and the intra- and inter-company mergers, at least within states, afford demonstrate that regulatory restrictions on geographic expansion and organizational form impose costs on banks that should be consciously considered by policy makers.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by EconWPA in its series Macroeconomics with number 9906011.
Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: 17 Jun 1999
Date of revision:
Note: Type of Document - Acrobat PDF; prepared on IBM PC; to print on PostScript; pages: 41; figures: included
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://126.96.36.199
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-1999-06-23 (All new papers)
- NEP-IND-1999-06-23 (Industrial Organization)
- NEP-LAW-1999-06-23 (Law & Economics)
- NEP-PKE-1999-06-23 (Post Keynesian Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Richard S. Barr & Thomas F. Siems, 1994. "Predicting bank failure using DEA to quantify management quality," Financial Industry Studies Working Paper 94-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
- Robert DeYoung, 1994. "Fee-based services and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Proceedings 47, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Hunter, William C & Timme, Stephen G, 1986. "Technical Change, Organizational Form, and the Structure of Bank Production," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(2), pages 152-66, May.
- Ferrier, Gary D. & Lovell, C. A. Knox, 1990. "Measuring cost efficiency in banking : Econometric and linear programming evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 229-245.
- Gary Whalen, 1983. "Holding company organizational form and efficiency," Working Paper 8302, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
- Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tehranian, Hassan, 1992. "Changes in corporate performance associated with bank acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-234, April.
- Kenneth Spong & John D. Shoenhair, 1992. "Performance of banks acquired on an interstate basis," Financial Industry Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Dec, pages 15-32.
- Douglas D. Evanoff & Philip R. Israilevich, 1991. "Productive efficiency in banking," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Jul, pages 11-32.
- George J. Benston & William C. Hunter & Larry D. Wall, 1992. "Motivations for bank mergers and acquisitions: enhancing the deposit insurance put option versus increasing operating net cash flow," Working Paper 92-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 1993.
"Explaining bank failures: deposit insurance, regulation, and efficiency,"
1993-002, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Wheelock, David C & Wilson, Paul W, 1995. "Explaining Bank Failures: Deposit Insurance, Regulation, and Efficiency," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(4), pages 689-700, November.
- Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992.
"Measurement and Efficiency Issues in Commercial Banking,"
in: Output Measurement in the Service Sectors, pages 245-300
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "Measurement and efficiency issues in commercial banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 151, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Shaffer, Sherrill, 1993. "Can megamergers improve bank efficiency?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 423-436, April.
- Daniel E. Nolle, 1994. "Banking Industry Consolidation: Changes and Implications for the Future," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_111, Levy Economics Institute.
- Berger, Allen N. & Hunter, William C. & Timme, Stephen G., 1993. "The efficiency of financial institutions: A review and preview of research past, present and future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 221-249, April.
- Schranz, Mary S, 1993. "Takeovers Improve Firm Performance: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 299-326, April.
- Loretta J. Mester, 1994. "How efficient are Third District banks?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Jan, pages 3-18.
- Jeffrey A. Clark, 1988. "Economies of scale and scope at depository financial institutions: a review of the literature," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Sep, pages 16-33.
- Newman, Joseph A. & Shrieves, Ronald E., 1993. "The multibank holding company effect on cost efficiency in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 709-732, June.
- Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, 1989. "Deposit-institution failures: a review of empirical literature," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q IV, pages 2-18.
- Linn, Scott C. & McConnell, John J., 1983. "An empirical investigation of the impact of `antitakeover' amendments on common stock prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 361-399, April.
- Loretta J. Mester, 1987. "Efficient production of financial services: scale and scope economies," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Jan, pages 15-25.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.