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Deterministic, stochastic and segmented trends in aggregate output: A cross-country analysis

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  • Yin-Wong Cheung

    (University of California at Santa Cruz)

  • Menzie Chinn

Abstract

This paper examines whether output per capita in 126 countries is better described as trend or difference stationary using formal statistical tests. Appropriate finite-sample critical values are constructed to evaluate the test results. Depending upon whether one uses solely a test with a trend stationary null, or solely one with a difference stationary null, one obtains very different conclusions regarding the long run dynamics of GDP. This outcome suggests that it is useful to consider the tests complementary, rather than competing. Based on results from both tests, we find that when a definite characterization of GDP can be made, it is very likely to indicate a difference stationary process. However, the likelihood of making definite conclusions does vary positively with both the income level and the quality of data.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Macroeconomics with number 9508005.

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Date of creation: 28 Aug 1995
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Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:9508005

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  1. Cogley, Timothy, 1990. "International Evidence on the Size of the Random Walk in Output," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(3), pages 501-18, June.
  2. Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  3. Leybourne, S J & McCabe, B P M, 1994. "A Consistent Test for a Unit Root," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(2), pages 157-66, April.
  4. Robert J. Shiller & Pierre Perron, 1985. "Testing the Random Walk Hypothesis: Power versus Frequency of Observation," NBER Technical Working Papers 0045, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Andrew B. Bernard & Steven N. Durlauf, 1991. "Convergence of International Output Movements," NBER Working Papers 3717, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Zelhorst, Dick & de Haan, Jakob, 1995. "Testing for a Break in Output: New International Evidence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(2), pages 357-62, April.
  7. Anindya Banerjee & Robin L. Lumsdaine & James H. Stock, 1990. "Recursive and Sequential Tests of the Unit Root and Trend Break Hypothesis: Theory and International Evidence," NBER Working Papers 3510, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Diebold, Francis X. & Rudebusch, Glenn D., 1989. "Long memory and persistence in aggregate output," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 189-209, September.
  9. Perron, Pierre, 1990. "Testing for a Unit Root in a Time Series with a Changing Mean," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(2), pages 153-62, April.
  10. Cheung, Yin-Wong, 1994. "Aggregate output dynamics in the twentieth century," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 15-22, May.
  11. Harris, R I D, 1992. "Small Sample Testing for Unit Roots," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(4), pages 615-25, November.
  12. Hall, Alastair R, 1994. "Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series with Pretest Data-Based Model Selection," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(4), pages 461-70, October.
  13. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
  14. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum, 1989. "Unit Roots in Real GNP: Do We Know, and Do We Care?," NBER Working Papers 3130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Summers, Robert & Heston, Alan, 1991. "The Penn World Table (Mark 5): An Expanded Set of International Comparisons, 1950-1988," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(2), pages 327-68, May.
  16. Rudebusch, Glenn D, 1993. "The Uncertain Unit Root in Real GNP," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 264-72, March.
  17. Kormendi, Roger C & Meguire, Philip, 1990. "A Multicountry Characterization of the Nonstationarity of Aggregate Output," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(1), pages 77-93, February.
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