Optimum Currency Areas and Shock Asymmetry A Comparison of Europe and the United States
AbstractThe authors examine the optimality of the European Monetary Union (EMU) by estimating the degree of asymmetry in shocks affecting thirteen European countries and comparing the results to those obtained for nine U.S. regions. First, they identify supply shocks and real and nominal demand shocks by imposing restrictions on the long-term effects of these on the level of output, prices and money. This decomposition is necessary to develop a measure of shock asymmetry that is not affected by country-specific monetary policy disturbances. Next, the unobservable common and specific components of structural shocks are identified by means of state-space models. The results show that both supply and real demand shocks affecting the regions of the United States are much more symmetrical than those affecting the European countries. In Europe, only Germany and Switzerland are strongly related to the symmetrical component of shocks. The fact that Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Sweden are not statistically related to the common component of the shocks suggests that they may face significant adjustment costs by participating in the European Monetary Union. However, these countries appear to be characterized by a smaller degree of nominal rigidity, which could partly offset the impact of asymmetrical shock by facilitating the adjustment. Shocks affecting France, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Spain are largely asymmetrical, though statistically related to the common components.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by EconWPA in its series International Finance with number 9406001.
Length: 50 pages
Date of creation: 22 Jun 1994
Date of revision: 23 Jun 1994
Note: 50 printed pages, Compressed PostScript file. If you have trouble viewing the complete document, please print it out on a postscript printer. Other recent Bank of Canada working papers are listed on the last page of this report.
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://188.8.131.52
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
- F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lafrance, Robert & St-Amant, Pierre, 2000. "Les zones monétaires optimales," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 76(4), pages 577-612, dÃ©cembre.
- Amano, R. A. & van Norden, S., 1998.
"Oil prices and the rise and fall of the US real exchange rate,"
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 299-316, April.
- Robert A. Amano & Simon van Norden, 1995. "Oil Prices and the Rise and Fall of the U.S. Real Exchange Rate," International Finance 9502001, EconWPA.
- Wirjanto, T.S. & Amano, R.A., 1993. "The Dynamic Demand for Money in Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom," Working Papers 9314, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics.
- Van Norden, S. & Schaller, H., 1996.
"Speculative Behaviour, Regime-Switching and Stock Market Crashes,"
96-13, Bank of Canada.
- Simon van Norden & Huntley Schaller & ), 1995. "Speculative Behaviour, Regime-Switching, and Stock Market Crashes," Econometrics 9502003, EconWPA.
- P Clark & D Laxton, 1997. "Phillips Curves," CEP Discussion Papers dp0344, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- G. Peersman, 2005. "The relative importance of symmetric and asymmetric shocks and the determination of the exchange rate," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 05/286, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Lionel FontagnÃ© & Michael Freudenberg, 1999. "Endogenous Symmetry of Shocks in a Monetary Union," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 263-287, July.
- Chrigui Zouhair & Boujelbene Younes, 2009. "The Opportunities for Adopting Inflation Targeting in Tunisia: a Cointegration Study and Transmission Channels of Monetary Policy," Transition Studies Review, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 671-692, October.
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2007.
"Transmission des chocs et mécanismes d'ajustement dans le Mercosur,"
Revue de l'OFCE,
Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 101(2), pages 355-392.
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2007. "Transmission des chocs et mécanismes d'ajustement dans le Mercosur," Post-Print halshs-00159553, HAL.
- Hassapis, Christis & Pittis, Nikitas & Prodromidis, Kyprianos, 1999. "Unit roots and Granger causality in the EMS interest rates: the German Dominance Hypothesis revisited," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-73, January.
- Schor, Armand-Denis, 2000. "La théorie des zones monétaires optimales : l’optimum, le praticable, le crédible et le réel," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 76(4), pages 545-576, dÃ©cembre.
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand, 2007.
"Modeling the impact of real and financial shocks on Mercosur: the role of the exchange rate regime,"
0701, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique (GATE), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure.
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2009. "Modeling the Impact of Real and Financial Shocks on Mercosur: The Role of the Exchange Rate Regime," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 359-384, July.
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2007. "Modeling the impact of real and financial shocks on Mercosur: the role of the exchange rate regime," Post-Print halshs-00142506, HAL.
- Benigno, Pierpaolo, 2004.
"Optimal monetary policy in a currency area,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 293-320, July.
- Murray, John, 2000. "Why Canada needs a flexible exchange rate," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 41-60, August.
- David Fielding & Kalvinder Shields, 2011.
"Regional Asymmetries in the Impact of Monetary Policy Shocks on Prices: Evidence from US Cities,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 73(1), pages 79-103, 02.
- David Fielding & Kalvinder Shields, 2007. "Regional Asymmetries in the Impact of Monetary Policy Shocks on Prices: Evidence from US Cities," Working Papers 0702, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Feb 2007.
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2007.
"Disentangling business cycles and macroeconomic policy in Mercosur: a VAR and unobserved components model approaches,"
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2006. "Disentangling business cycles and macroeconomic policy in Mercosur: a VAR and unobserved components model approaches," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2006-15, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
- Jean-Pierre Allegret & Alain Sand-Zantman, 2006. "Disentangling business cycles and macroeconomic policy in Mercosur: a VAR and unobserved components model approaches," Post-Print halshs-00134317, HAL.
- Laurence Boone, 1997. "Symmetry and Asymmetry of Supply and Demand Shocks in the European Union," Working Papers 1997-03, CEPII research center.
- Raoul Lättemäe, 2003. "EMU Accession Issues in Baltic Countries," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp17a, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 01 May 2003.
- Fidrmuc, Jarko & Korhonen, Iikka, 2004. "A meta-analysis of business cycle correlation between the euro area and CEECs: What do we know – and who cares?," BOFIT Discussion Papers 20/2004, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
- Igor Veličkovski & Aleksandar Stojkov, 2014. "Is the European integration speeding up the economic convergence process of the Central and South-Eastern European countries? A shock perspective," Empirica, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 287-321, May.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.