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Living in deprived neighbourhoods in Scotland. Occupational mobility and neighbourhood effects

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  • David Manley

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  • Maarten van Ham

Abstract

The idea that living in a deprived neighbourhood negatively affects the occupational mobility of residents has been embraced enthusiastically by many policy makers and academics. As a result, area based initiatives are now widely used to improve an individual’s life course through the diversification of the neighbourhood in which they live. However, these area based initiatives have received increasing criticism from academics stating that there is no solid evidence base that neighbourhood effects really exist. One of the main problems is that many studies use cross-sectional data which does not allow the separation of cause and effect. We use longitudinal data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) to investigate the influence of neighbourhood context on employment outcomes. The SLS allows us to follow individuals between 1991 and 2001, using linked records from both Censuses. Using this data we examine whether, for employed individuals, living in a deprived neighbourhood reduces occupational mobility using ISEI scores; for individuals out of work, we examine whether living in a deprived neighbourhood reduces their chances of obtaining work. Using regression models, we control for a range of individual and household characteristics. All other things being equal, those individuals living in more deprived communities should experience significant negative effects accrued from their neighbourhood if the neighbourhood effects thesis is to be confirmed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa10p547.

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Date of creation: Sep 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa10p547

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  1. Maarten van Ham & Peteke Feijten, 2008. "Who wants to leave the neighbourhood? The effect of being different from the neighbourhood population on wishes to move," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 40(5), pages 1151-1170, May.
  2. Charles F. Manski, 2000. "Economic Analysis of Social Interactions," NBER Working Papers 7580, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Philip Oreopoulos, 2003. "The Long-Run Consequences Of Living In A Poor Neighborhood," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1533-1575, November.
  4. repec:att:wimass:9127 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Bolster, Anne & Burgess, Simon & Johnston, Ron & Jones, Kelvyn & Propper, Carol & Sarker, Rebecca, 2004. "Neighbourhoods, Households and Income Dynamics: A Semi-Parametric Investigation of Neighbourhood Effects," CEPR Discussion Papers 4611, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. George Galster, 2007. "Neighbourhood Social Mix as a Goal of Housing Policy: A Theoretical Analysis," International Journal of Housing Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 19-43.
  7. Lawrence F. Katz & Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2001. "Moving To Opportunity In Boston: Early Results Of A Randomized Mobility Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(2), pages 607-654, May.
  8. Maarten van Ham & David Manley, 2010. "The effect of neighbourhood housing tenure mix on labour market outcomes: a longitudinal investigation of neighbourhood effects," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 257-282, March.
  9. Barrett Lee & R. Oropesa & James Kanan, 1994. "Neighborhood Context and Residential Mobility," Demography, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 249-270, May.
  10. Rowland Atkinson & Keith Kintrea, 2002. "Area effects: what do they mean for British housing and regeneration policy?," European Journal of Housing Policy, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 2(2), pages 147-166, August.
  11. Jens Ludwig & Greg J. Duncan & Paul Hirschfield, 2001. "Urban Poverty And Juvenile Crime: Evidence From A Randomized Housing-Mobility Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(2), pages 655-679, May.
  12. Galster, George & Andersson, Roger & Musterd, Sako & Kauppinen, Timo M., 2008. "Does neighborhood income mix affect earnings of adults? New evidence from Sweden," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 858-870, May.
  13. van der Klaauw, Bas & van Ours, Jan C., 2003. "From welfare to work: does the neighborhood matter?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(5-6), pages 957-985, May.
  14. George Galster, 2007. "Neighbourhood Social Mix as a Goal of Housing Policy: A Theoretical Analysis," European Journal of Housing Policy, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 19-43.
  15. Manski, Charles F, 1993. "Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(3), pages 531-42, July.
  16. Galster, George, 2002. "An economic efficiency analysis of deconcentrating poverty populations," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 303-329, December.
  17. Maarten van Ham & Pieter Hooimeijer & Clara H. Mulder, 2001. "Urban Form and Job Access: Disparate Realities in the Randstad," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 92(2), pages 231-246, 05.
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