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Women, Entrepreneurial Activity And Territory: Differences Or Myths?

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  • Antonio Garcia-Tabuenca

    ()

  • Jose L. Crespo-Espert
  • Federico Pablo-Marti

Abstract

The earliest published study on entrepreneurial women is credited to Schwartz (1976). Subsequently, various female researchers (Hisrich and Brush, 1984; Cromie, 1987; Kaplan, 1988; …) started to examine the possible differences that could be derived from gender. The analysis of the features of entrepreneurial women is now a subject of discussion due to the fact that the results obtained so far are not conclusive. While Hisrich and Brush find significant differences related to gender (attitudes, motives …), Buttner and Rosen (1988) do not find disparities for being man or woman, but due to mere organisational questions such as the type of business. On the other hand, Gatewood, Brush et al. (2008) detail the differences and myths related to the growth –venture capital- of women’s entrepreneurial activity. All things considered, the activity and behaviour of entrepreneurial women is still controversial as it is a relatively recent issue and one from which homogeneous results have not yet been obtained. Along these lines, new contributions in different societies and territorial areas –including regions- allow researchers to penetrate more profoundly into this subject matter and discover new ideas and conclusions that provoke academic debate and offer suggestions for new policies. This research, which at first provides a specific review of the most relevant literature, investigates the perception of Spanish entrepreneurial women’s activity, not only concerning the characterisation of their personal features –using specific surveys-, but also from the perspective of their performance in the activity –by comparing the entrepreneurial results over a specific period, including an expansion stage and a (more recent) recession stage. Comparatively speaking, certain control groups of the whole economy are chosen, by regions and sectors, which allows a counterfactual methodology, and statistical and econometric methods are used to refine the analysis. The results and conclusions broaden the understanding of the facts and provide evidence of which could be considered to be differences and which remains to be seen as myths of the entrepreneurial development of women in a Mediterranean country.

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Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa10p1465.

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Date of creation: Sep 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa10p1465

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References

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  1. Sexton, Donald L. & Bowman-Upton, Nancy, 1990. "Female and male entrepreneurs: Psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 29-36, January.
  2. Muravyev, Alexander & Talavera, Oleksandr & Schäfer, Dorothea, 2009. "Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 270-286, June.
  3. Ingrid Verheul & Sander Wennekers & David Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 2001. "An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 01-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. Carter, Nancy M. & Gartner, William B. & Shaver, Kelly G. & Gatewood, Elizabeth J., 2003. "The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 13-39, January.
  5. Susan Coleman & Alicia Robb, 2009. "A comparison of new firm financing by gender: evidence from the Kauffman Firm Survey data," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 397-411, December.
  6. Rebel A. Cole & John D. Wolken, 1995. "Financial services used by small businesses: evidence from the 1993 National Survey of Small Business Finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jul, pages 629-667.
  7. Richard Harris & Mary Trainor, 2005. "Capital Subsidies and their Impact on Total Factor Productivity: Firm-Level Evidence from Northern Ireland," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(1), pages 49-74.
  8. Rachida Justo & Cristina Cruz & Julio Orlando De Castro & Alicia Coduras, 2006. "Entrepreneurs´ perceptions of success: examining differences across gender and family status," Working Papers Economia, Instituto de Empresa, Area of Economic Environment wp06-07, Instituto de Empresa, Area of Economic Environment.
  9. Carter, Nancy M. & Gartner, William B. & Reynolds, Paul D., 1996. "Exploring start-up event sequences," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 151-166, May.
  10. Rosa, Peter & Carter, Sara & Hamilton, Daphne, 1996. " Gender as a Determinant of Small Business Performance: Insights from a British Study," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 8(6), pages 463-78, December.
  11. Brush, Candida G. & Gatewood, Elizabeth J., 2008. "Women growing businesses: Clearing the hurdles," Business Horizons, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 175-179.
  12. Anu Tokila & Mika Haapanen & Jari Ritsila, 2008. "Evaluation of investment subsidies: when is deadweight zero?," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(5), pages 585-600.
  13. Holly Buttner, E., 1993. "Female entrepreneurs: How far have they come?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 59-65.
  14. Shane, Scott & Kolvereid, Lars & Westhead, Paul, 1991. "An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new firm formation across country and gender," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 6(6), pages 431-446, November.
  15. Elizabeth Gatewood & Candida Brush & Nancy Carter & Patricia Greene & Myra Hart, 2009. "Diana: a symbol of women entrepreneurs’ hunt for knowledge, money, and the rewards of entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 129-144, February.
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