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Value Added and Factors in Trade: A Comprehensive Approach

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Author Info

  • Gaaitzen De Vries
  • Neil Foster-McGregor

    ()
    (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)

  • Robert Stehrer

    ()
    (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)

Abstract

Based on recent approaches measuring the factor content of trade when intermediates are traded this paper provides an approach to decompose the value added and factor (capital, high, medium and low educated labour) content of trade into foreign and domestic components. This adds to the literature by simultaneously considering both exports and imports allowing a focus on the patterns and changes of net trade and its components and generalizes the commonly applied vertical specialization measures based on exports only. It is further pointed out that a country’s trade balance in terms of value added content equals its trade balance in gross trade. Empirically, results of the proposed decomposition based on the recently compiled World Input-Output Database (WIOD) covering 40 countries and 35 industries over the period 1995-2009 are presented. The domestic value added content of exports tends to decrease over time, increasing again in the crisis. Splitting up by production factors, emerging economies tend to export relatively more capital and import labour in value terms, with the opposite pattern found for advanced economies. Splitting up labour by educational attainment the expected pattern of the advanced countries being relatively stronger net exporters of high-educated labor as compared to low-educated labour in value terms emerges. This provides a distinct view on the structure of trade deficits and surpluses across countries based on its factor content. Finally, it is shown that the role of services is more important than would be suggested by conventional trade statistics due to the value added created in service sectors for production of manufacturing exports.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw in its series wiiw Working Papers with number 80.

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Length: 23 pages including 9 Tables
Date of creation: Jun 2012
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published as wiiw Working Paper
Handle: RePEc:wii:wpaper:80

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Related research

Keywords: value added trade; trade in factors; vertical specialization; production net-works; services trade;

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Cited by:
  1. Robert Koopman & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2012. "Tracing Value-added and Double Counting in Gross Exports," NBER Working Papers 18579, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Meng, Bo & Fang, Yong & Yamano, Norihiko, 2012. "Measuring global value chains and regional economic integration : an international input-output approach," IDE Discussion Papers 362, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  3. Martin Borowiecki & Bernhard Dachs & Doris Hanzl-Weiss & Steffen Kinkel & Johannes Pöschl & Magdolna Sass & Thomas Christian Schmall & Robert Stehrer & Andrea Szalavetz, 2012. "Global Value Chains and the EU Industry," wiiw Research Reports 383, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  4. Xiao Jiang & William Milberg, 2013. "Capturing the jobs from globalization: trade and employment in global value chains," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series ctg-2013-30, BWPI, The University of Manchester.

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