Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Barter in Russia: Liquidity Shortage versus Lack of Restructuring

Contents:

Author Info

  • Sophie Brana
  • Mathilde Maurel

Abstract

The rapid growth of barter is one of the most surprising phenomena in Russia: As a percentage of industrial sales it steadily increased from 5% in 1992 to nearly 55% in 1998. Unknown in CEEC's transition countries, barter is only one aspect of the Russian economy's demonetisation [process, along with dollarisation, growing arrears, and the widespread use of veksels and offsets. Barter is often seen as the consequence of the lack of restructuring, but some authors argue that it is a mechanism used to avoid shutting down potentially viable firms, in a context of market imperfections. The implications differ depending on the analysis chosen: in the first case, an expansionary monetary policy might not be appropriate, while the contrary is true if the demonetisation process jeopardizes potentially good enterprises. This paper aims to assess this phenomenon in the Russian economy. The paper's main contribution to work in this field (reviewed and documented in section II) is to highlight two different rationales for barter. Before studying the latter more closely, section III uses official monthly data collected by the central bank of Russia, the Goskomstat, and the Russian Economic Barometer (REB), to emphasize the macro-economic features of barter in Russia, and, more specifically, the link between monetary policy and bartering activity. It appears that macroeconomic policy and macroeconomic indicators are unable to explain the whole process. In section IV, quarterly statistics for 1995 and 1996 taken from the REB survey of roughly 200 firms make it possible to implement a more qualitative survey. The conclusion is striking: barter is used by potentially viable firms as a way of avoiding closure, while at the same time financing increasing inventories and soft goods in the case of indebted firms who use barter transactions, bank credit and choose to accumulate arrers in order to avoid restructuring.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp271.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number 271.

as in new window
Length: pages
Date of creation: 01 Jun 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:1999-271

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 724 E. University Ave, Wyly Hall 1st Flr, Ann Arbor MI 48109
Phone: 734 763-5020
Fax: 734 763 5850
Email:
Web page: http://www.wdi.umich.edu
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: barter; non-monetary transactions; virtual economy; Russia; transition;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Ellingsen, Tore, 1998. "Payments in Kind," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 244, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 10 Feb 2000.
  2. Marin, Dalia & Schnitzer, Monika, 1999. "Disorganization and Financial Collapse," CEPR Discussion Papers 2245, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Estrin, Saul & Rosevear, Adam, 1999. "Enterprise performance and ownership: The case of Ukraine," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 1125-1136, April.
  4. Sophie Brana & Mathilde Maurel & Jérôme Sgard, 1999. "Enterprise Adjustment and the Role of Bank Credit in Russia: Evidence from a 420 Firm's Qualitative Survey," Working Papers 1999-06, CEPII research center.
  5. Jan Amrit Poser, 1998. "Monetary disruptions and the emergence of barter in FSU economies," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 157-177.
  6. Susan J Linz & Gary Krueger, 1998. "Enterprise Restructuring in Russia's Transition Economy: Formal and Informal Mechanisms," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(2), pages 5-52, July.
  7. Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Survival of the Fittest or the Fattest? Exit and Financing in the Trucking Industry," CEPR Discussion Papers 1778, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. G. Alfandari & M.E. Schaffer, 1996. ""Arrears" in the Russian Enterprise Sector," CERT Discussion Papers 9608, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
  9. Fumio Hayashi & Akihiko Matsui, 1994. "A Model of Fiat Money and Barter," NBER Working Papers 4919, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
  11. Marin, Dalia & Schnitzer, Monika, 1995. "Tying Trade Flows: A Theory of Countertrade with Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1047-64, December.
  12. Barry Ickes & Peter Murrell & Randi Ryterman, 1997. "End of the Tunnel? The Effects of Financial Stabilization in Russia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 50, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  13. Clifford Gaddy & Barry W. Ickes, 1998. "To Restructure or Not to Restructure: Informal Activities and Enterprise Behavior in Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 134, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  14. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
  15. Alan Bevan & Saul Estrin & Mark E. Schaffer, 1999. "Determinants of Enterprise Performance during Transition," CERT Discussion Papers 9903, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
  16. Canice Prendergast & Lars A. Stole, 1996. "Non-Monetary Exchange Within Firms and Industry," NBER Working Papers 5765, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Guriev, Sergei & Kvassov, Dmitri, 2004. "Barter for price discrimination," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 329-350, March.
  2. Sergei Guriev & Igor Makarov & Mathilde Maurel, 2000. "Debt Overhang and Barter in Russia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 339, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  3. Jose Noguera, 2004. "Is Barter a Hobson’s Choice? A theory of barter and credit rationing," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp239, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
  4. Sergei Guriev & Dmitry Kvassov, 2000. "Price Discrimination Through Barter: A Theory and Evidence from Russia," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0397, Econometric Society.
  5. Vlad Ivanenko, 2004. "Access to liquidity and non-monetary trade in Russia," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 21-38.
  6. Mario Gara, 2001. "The Emergence of Non-monetary Means of Payment in the Russian Economy," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 5-39.
  7. Kim, Byung-Yeon & Pirttila, Jukka, 2004. "Money, barter, and inflation in Russia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 297-314, June.
  8. Richard B. Goud Jr., 2002. "Inter-Firm Non-Monetary Transactions in Russia: A Literature Review," Development and Comp Systems 0207001, EconWPA.
  9. Sergei Guriev & Dmitry Kvassov, 2000. "Barter for price discrimination? A theory and evidence from Russia," Working Papers w0007, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
  10. José Noguera & Susan J. Linz, 2005. "Barter, Credit, and Welfare: A theoretical inquiry into the barter phenomenon in Russia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp757, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  11. Minzyuk, Larysa, 2010. "The development of non-monetary means of payment," MPRA Paper 28167, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2010.
  12. Jose Noguera & Susan Linz, 2003. "A Theoretical Model of Barter in Russia," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp207, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:1999-271. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Laurie Gendron).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.