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The Markov-Switching Multifractal Model of Asset Returns: GMM Estimation and Linear Forecasting of Volatility

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  • Thomas Lux

Abstract

Multi-fractal processes have recently been proposed as a new formalism for modelling the time series of returns in finance. The major attraction of these processes is their ability to generate various degrees of long memory in different powers of returns - a feature that has been found in virtually all financial data. Initial difficulties stemming from non-stationarity and the combinatorial nature of the original model have been overcome by the introduction of an iterative Markov-switching multi-fractal model in Calvet and Fisher (2001) which allows for estimation of its parameters via maximum likelihood and Bayesian forecasting of volatility. However, applicability of MLE is restricted to cases with a discrete distribution of volatility components. From a practical point of view, ML also becomes computationally unfeasible for large numbers of components even if they are drawn from a discrete distribution. Here we propose an alternative GMM estimator together with linear forecasts which in principle is applicable for any continuous distribution with any number of volatility components. Monte Carlo studies show that GMM performs reasonably well for the popular Binomial and Lognormal models and that the loss incured with linear compared to optimal forecasts is small. Extending the number of volatility components beyond what is feasible with MLE leads to gains in forecasting accuracy for some time series. --

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Paper provided by Warwick Business School, Finance Group in its series Working Papers with number wp06-19.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:wbs:wpaper:wp06-19

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  1. Torben G. Andersen & Bent E. Sorensen, 1995. "GMM Estimation of a Stochastic Volatility Model: A Monte Carlo Study," Discussion Papers 95-19, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  2. Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 1995. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(3), pages 253-63, July.
  3. Brockwell, P. J. & Dahlhaus, R., 2004. "Generalized Levinson-Durbin and Burg algorithms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 118(1-2), pages 129-149.
  4. Laurent Calvet & Adlai Fisher, 1999. "Forecasting Multifractal Volatility," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-017, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  5. Ser-Huang Poon & Clive W.J. Granger, 2003. "Forecasting Volatility in Financial Markets: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(2), pages 478-539, June.
  6. Torben G. Andersen & Tim Bollerslev, 1996. "Heterogeneous Information Arrivals and Return Volatility Dynamics: Uncovering the Long-Run in High Frequency Returns," NBER Working Papers 5752, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Laurent Calvet & Adlai Fisher, 2003. "Regime-Switching and the Estimation of Multifractal Processes," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1999, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  8. Laurent Calvet & Adlai Fisher, 2002. "Multifractality In Asset Returns: Theory And Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 381-406, August.
  9. Gilles Zumbach, 2004. "Volatility processes and volatility forecast with long memory," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 70-86.
  10. Ding, Zhuanxin & Granger, Clive W. J. & Engle, Robert F., 1993. "A long memory property of stock market returns and a new model," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 83-106, June.
  11. Baillie, Richard T. & Bollerslev, Tim & Mikkelsen, Hans Ole, 1996. "Fractionally integrated generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 3-30, September.
  12. Calvet, Laurent E. & Fisher, Adlai J. & Thompson, Samuel B., 2006. "Volatility comovement: a multifrequency approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 131(1-2), pages 179-215.
  13. Vilasuso, Jon, 2002. "Forecasting exchange rate volatility," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 59-64, June.
  14. I.N. Lobato & N.E. Savin, 1996. "Real and Spurious Long Memory Properties of Stock Market Data," Econometrics 9605004, EconWPA, revised 26 Sep 1996.
  15. Hansen, Lars Peter & Heaton, John & Yaron, Amir, 1996. "Finite-Sample Properties of Some Alternative GMM Estimators," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(3), pages 262-80, July.
  16. Laurent Calvet & Adlai Fisher & Benoit Mandelbrot, 1999. "A Multifractal Model of Assets Returns," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-072, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  17. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-54, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Thomas Lux & Leonardo Morales-Arias & Cristina Sattarhoff, 2011. "A Markov-switching Multifractal Approach to Forecasting Realized Volatility," Kiel Working Papers 1737, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  2. Laurent E. Calvet & Adlai J. Fisher, 2006. "Multifrequency Jump-Diffusions: An Equilibrium Approach," NBER Working Papers 12797, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Filip Zikes & Jozef Barunik & Nikhil Shenai, 2012. "Modeling and Forecasting Persistent Financial Durations," Papers 1208.3087, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2013.
  4. Idier, J., 2008. "Long term vs. short term comovements in stock markets: the use of Markov-switching multifractal models," Working papers 218, Banque de France.
  5. Adnen Ben Nasr & Ahdi N. Ajmi & Rangan Gupta, 2013. "Modeling the Volatility of the Dow Jones Islamic Market World Index Using a Fractionally Integrated Time Varying GARCH (FITVGARCH) Model," Working Papers 201357, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  6. M. Rypdal & O. L{\o}vsletten, 2011. "Multifractal modeling of short-term interest rates," Papers 1111.5265, arXiv.org.
  7. G.-F. Gu & W.-X. Zhou, 2009. "On the probability distribution of stock returns in the Mike-Farmer model," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 67(4), pages 585-592, February.
  8. Ruipeng Liu & Thomas Lux, 2010. "Flexible and Robust Modelling of Volatility Comovements: A Comparison of Two Multifractal Models," Kiel Working Papers 1594, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  9. Ola L{\o}vsletten & Martin Rypdal, 2012. "A multifractal approach towards inference in finance," Papers 1202.5376, arXiv.org.

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