Employee Stock Options: Much More Valuable Than You Thought
AbstractPrevious papers have argued that trading restrictions can result in a typical employee stock option having a subjective value (certainty equivalent value) that is substantially less than its Black-Scholes value. However, these analyses ignore the managerâs ability to (at least partially) control the risk level within the firm. In this paper, we show how managerial control can lead to such options having much larger certainty equivalent values for employees who can exercise control. We also show that the potential for early exercise is substantially less valuable with managerial control. The certainty equivalent value for a European option with managerial control can easily exceed the Black-Scholes value for a comparable option without control. However, it is questionable whether Black-Scholes is an appropriate benchmark for an option where the underlying process exhibits controlled volatility. We show how to obtain a risk-neutral valuation for such an option. That risk-neutral value can be substantially greater or less than the Black- Scholes value. Furthermore, the optionâs certainty equivalent value can also be greater or less than its risk-neutral value.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Warwick Business School, Finance Group in its series Working Papers with number wp05-09.
Date of creation: 2005
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Jens Carsten Jackwerth & James E. Hodder, 2005. "Employee Stock Options: Much More Valuable Than You Thought," CoFE Discussion Paper 05-01, Center of Finance and Econometrics, University of Konstanz.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Merton, Robert C, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection under Uncertainty: The Continuous-Time Case," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 247-57, August.
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11632, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jens Carsten Jackwerth & James Hodder, 2005. "Incentive Contracts and Hedge Fund Management," Working Papers wp05-10, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
- Jens Carsten Jackwerth & James E. Hodder, 2005. "Incentive Contracts and Hedge Fund Management," CoFE Discussion Paper 05-02, Center of Finance and Econometrics, University of Konstanz.
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97-10, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
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- Mark Rubinstein, 1976. "The Valuation of Uncertain Income Streams and the Pricing of Options," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 7(2), pages 407-425, Autumn.
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