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Export quota allocations, export earnings and market diversifications

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  • Bark, Taeho
  • de Melo, Jaime

Abstract

Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) present a growing threat to a liberal world-trading system and slow the reallocation of production of mature industries from developed to developing countries. Among NTBs, voluntary export restraints (VERs) are proliferating and constitute a major element of the"new protectionism". It has been repeatedly observed that export markets which are not currently part of the VER agreement often follow suit and enter into a VER agreement. Exporting countries may then wish to prepare themselves for this eventuality by actively promoting export diversification towards non-restricted countries as a precautionary measure against future restrictions. Section II of this paper briefly describes how export diversification is typically achieved. In Section III, a simple model is set up that analyzes the implications of the two tier quota allocation rule. Section IV briefly examines alternative instruments and motivations for achieving export diversification. Implications are also drawn for policy actions by nonrestricted countries and the suggestion made that the recent increase in anti-dumping cases may be linked to this two-tier quota allocation practice.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 89.

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Date of creation: 30 Sep 1988
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:89

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Keywords: Economic Theory&Research; Markets and Market Access; Access to Markets; Environmental Economics&Policies; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT;

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  1. Aw, Bee Yan & Roberts, Mark J., 1986. "Measuring quality change in quota-constrained import markets: The Case of U.S. Footwear," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1-2), pages 45-60, August.
  2. Krueger, Anne O, 1974. "The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(3), pages 291-303, June.
  3. Taeho Bark & Jaime Melo, 1987. "Export mix adjustment to the imposition of VERs: Alternative license allocation schemes," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 123(4), pages 668-678, December.
  4. J. Bhagwati & T. N. Srinivasan, 1979. "Revenue-Seeking: A Generalization of the Theory of Tariffs," Working papers 243, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  5. Falvey, Rodney E, 1979. "The Composition of Trade within Import-restricted Product Categories," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 1105-14, October.
  6. McCulloch, Rachel & Johnson, Harry G, 1973. "A Note on Proportionally Distributed Quotas," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 726-32, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Faini, R. & Melo, J. de & Takacs, W., 1992. "A Primer on the MFA Maze," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 92.15, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
  2. Takacs, Wendy E., 1991. "Domestic purchase requirements for import license allocations in Mali," Policy Research Working Paper Series 569, The World Bank.
  3. De Melo, Jaime & Winters, L. Alan, 1989. "Price and quality effects of VERs - revisited : a case study of Korean footwear exports," Policy Research Working Paper Series 216, The World Bank.
  4. de Melo, Jaime & Winters, L. Alan, 1990. "Voluntary export restraints and resource allocation in exporting countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 352, The World Bank.

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