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Access to finance, product innovation and middle-income traps

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  • Agenor, Pierre-Richard
  • Canuto, Otaviano

Abstract

This paper studies interactions between access to finance, product innovation, and labor supply in a two-period overlapping generations model with an endogenous skill distribution and credit market frictions. In the model lack of access to finance (induced by high monitoring costs) has an adverse effect on innovation activity not only directly but also indirectly, because too few individuals may choose to invest in skills. If monitoring costs fall with the number of successful projects, multiple equilibria may emerge, one of which, a middle-income trap, characterized by low wages in the design sector, a low share of the labor force engaged in innovation activity, and low growth. A sufficiently ambitious policy aimed at alleviating constraints on access to finance by innovators may allow a country to move away from such a trap by promoting the production of ideas and improving incentives to invest in skills.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6767.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2014
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6767

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Keywords: Labor Policies; Access to Finance; Debt Markets; Economic Theory&Research; Banks&Banking Reform;

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  1. Shekhar Aiyar & Romain A Duval & Damien Puy & Yiqun Wu & Longmei Zhang, 2013. "Growth Slowdowns and the Middle-Income Trap," IMF Working Papers 13/71, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Maskus, Keith E. & Neumann, Rebecca & Seidel, Tobias, 2012. "How national and international financial development affect industrial R&D," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 72-83.
  3. Holmstrom, Bengt, 1989. "Agency costs and innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 305-327, December.
  4. Hottenrott, Hanna & Peters, Bettina, 2009. "Innovative capability and financing constraints for innovation: More money, more innovation?," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-081, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Jesus Felipe & Arnelyn Abdon & Utsav Kumar, 2012. "Tracking the Middle-income Trap: What Is It, Who Is in It, and Why?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_715, Levy Economics Institute.
  6. Hirukawa, Masayuki & Ueda, Masako, 2008. "Venture Capital and Innovation: Which is First?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7090, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Philippe Aghion & Peter Howitt, 2009. "The Economics of Growth," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 9780262012638, December.
  8. Holmström, Bengt, 1989. "Agency Costs and Innovation," Working Paper Series 214, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  9. Dinopoulos, Elias & Thompson, Peter, 2000. "Endogenous growth in a cross-section of countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 335-362, August.
  10. Anna Ilyina & Roberto Samaniego, 2011. "Technology and Financial Development," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(5), pages 899-921, 08.
  11. Masayuki Hirukawa & Masako Ueda, 2011. "Venture Capital And Innovation: Which Is First?," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 421-465, October.
  12. Filipe Silva & Carlos Carreira, 2011. "Do financial constraints threat the innovation process? Evidence from Portuguese firms," GEMF Working Papers 2011-10, GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra, revised Oct 2011.
  13. Im, Fernando Gabriel & Rosenblatt, David, 2013. "Middle-income traps : a conceptual and empirical survey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6594, The World Bank.
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