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Gender, ethnicity and cumulative disadvantage in education : evidence from Latin American and African censuses

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  • Tas, Emcet O.
  • Reimao, Maira Emy
  • Orlando, Maria Beatriz

Abstract

This paper studies the impact of gender and ethnicity on educational outcomes using cross-country evidence from Bolivia, Mexico, Peru, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. It uses the Minnesota Population Center's Integrated Public Use Microdata Series-International database, which includes individual-level data from large, harmonized, and representative samples of country censuses. Using an estimation method analogous to difference-in-differences, the paper finds that gender-based differences in literacy, primary school completion, and secondary school completion are larger for minority ethnic groups compared with others or, alternatively, ethnicity-based differences are larger for women compared with men. The findings suggest that the intersection of gender and ethnicity confers cumulative disadvantage for minority groups, especially in Latin America. The paper discusses the implications of these findings on the design of, targeting in, and resource allocation for development programs.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6734.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2013
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6734

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Related research

Keywords: Population Policies; Education For All; Primary Education; Disability; Gender and Development;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

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  1. Caren Grown & Emcet Tas, 2010. "Gender Equality in the US Labor Markets in the "Great Recession" of 2007-2010," Working Papers 2010-15, American University, Department of Economics.
  2. Arnaud Chevalier & Colm Harmon & Vincent O'Sullivan & Ian Walker, 2005. "The impact of parental income and education on the schooling of their children," IFS Working Papers W05/05, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Juan Pablo Atal & Hugo Nopo & Natalia Winder, 2009. "New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America," Research Department Publications 4640, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  4. Rose Brewer & Cecilia Conrad & Mary King, 2002. "The Complexities and Potential of Theorizing Gender, Caste, Race, and Class," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 3-17.
  5. Sen, Gita & Iyer, Aditi, 2012. "Who gains, who loses and how: Leveraging gender and class intersections to secure health entitlements," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(11), pages 1802-1811.
  6. Carr-Hill, Roy, 2013. "Missing Millions and Measuring Development Progress," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 30-44.
  7. Otrude Moyo & Saliwe Kawewe, 2002. "The Dynamics of a Racialized, Gendered, Ethnicized, and Economically Stratified Society: Understanding the Socio-Economic Status of Women in Zimbabwe," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 163-181.
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