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Developing country trade policies and market access issues : 1990-2012

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  • Michalopoulos, Constantine
  • Ng, Francis
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    Abstract

    The study presents a comprehensive review of developing country trade policies and market access issues as they evolved over the period 1990-2012. The main findings are, first, that applied tariffs as well as traditional core non-tariff measures have declined significantly over time in both developed and developing countries. Second, the instruments of protection used by developed and developing countries are becoming increasingly similar: trade remedies, especially anti-dumping are the instruments of choice for all except low-income developing countries. Third, agriculture is the main sector where developing countries face access problems in OECD markets. Fourth, regional and other preferential trade agreements are both a result and a cause of the lack of progress in multilateral trade negotiations. They violate the basic World Trade Organization tenet of most favored nation and thus pose a potential threat to the multilateral system and a potential stimulus to further multilateral collaboration. Fifth, sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade are being increasingly used by both developed and developing countries but their protective intent is difficult to gauge. There is a need for increased vigilance, transparency, and reporting to ensure that they are not being used as a means of protection of economic interests. Sixth, the service sectors are the most promising area where efforts for further liberalization are needed and may produce significant benefits. And seventh, far less additional protection has been put in place following the 2008 financial crisis compared with what had been feared or what had happened in earlier crises.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6463.

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    Date of creation: 01 May 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6463

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    Related research

    Keywords: Trade Policy; Free Trade; Economic Theory&Research; Debt Markets; Emerging Markets;

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

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    1. Won Chang & L. Alan Winters, 2002. "How Regional Blocs Affect Excluded Countries: The Price Effects of MERCOSUR," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 889-904, September.
    2. Wilson, John S. & Otsuki, Tsunehiro & Majumdar, Baishali, 2003. "Balancing Food Safety And Risk: Do Drug Residue Limits Affect International Trade In Beef?," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 21971, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Xiong, Bo & Beghin, John C., 2011. "Does European Aflatoxin Regulation Hurt Groundnut Exporters from Africa?," Staff General Research Papers 34936, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    4. Arvind Panagariya, 2000. "Preferential Trade Liberalization: The Traditional Theory and New Developments," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(2), pages 287-331, June.
    5. Borchert, Ingo & Gootiiz, Batshur & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2012. "Policy barriers to international trade in services : evidence from a new database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6109, The World Bank.
    6. Tsunehiro Otsuki & John S. Wilson, 2001. "What price precaution? European harmonisation of aflatoxin regulations and African groundnut exports," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 263-284, October.
    7. World Bank, 2012. "World Development Indicators 2012," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6014, October.
    8. Nogues, Julio J & Olechowski, Andrzej & Winters, L Alan, 1986. "The Extent of Nontariff Barriers to Industrial Countries' Imports," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(1), pages 181-99, September.
    9. Michalopoulos, Constantine & Ng, Francis, 2013. "Trends in developing country trade 1980-2010," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6334, The World Bank.
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