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Equality of opportunity for children in Egypt, 2000-2009 : achievements and challenges

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  • Velez, Carlos E.
  • Al-Shawarby, Sherine
  • El-Laithy, Heba

Abstract

This paper provides relevant indicators and measurements useful for public policies seeking the expansion of equitable human development opportunities for Egyptian children and youth. To measure equitable access to opportunities, the authors use the Human Opportunity Index to examine the evolution of 16 basic opportunity indicators grouped in four sectors: education, basic housing services, early childhood development, and nutrition and hunger. The main findings show that during the last decade most opportunities for children and youth improved unambiguously,for the first two sectors, but were stagnant for nutrition and early childhood development opportunities. Although the urban-rural and interregional gaps were partially reduced, there are still substantial opportunity gaps between children in favorable and unfavorable circumstances. Parents'education, income per capita, urban-rural location, number of siblings, and regional location, are the five most important factors affecting equality of opportunity, although their impact varies across indicators.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6159.

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Date of creation: 01 Aug 2012
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6159

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Keywords: Population Policies; Primary Education; Early Child and Children's Health; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Regional Economic Development;

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  1. James Heckman & Pedro Carneiro, 2003. "Human Capital Policy," NBER Working Papers 9495, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Albers, Ronald & Peeters, Marga, 2011. "Food and energy prices, government subsidies and fiscal balances in south Mediterranean countries," MPRA Paper 28788, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Joao Pedro Azevedo & Samuel Franco & Eliana Rubiano & Alejandro Hoyos, 2010. "HOI: Stata module to compute Human Opportunity Index," Statistical Software Components S457191, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 05 Apr 2011.
  4. Rocco, Lorenzo & Tanabe, Kimie & Suhrcke, Marc & Fumagalli, Elena, 2011. "Chronic diseases and labor market outcomes in Egypt," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5575, The World Bank.
  5. Ricardo Paes de Barros & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jose R. Molinas Vega & Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi, 2009. "Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2580.
  6. Ferreira , Francisco H. G. & Gignoux, Jeremie, 2008. "The measurement of inequality of opportunity : theory and an application to Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4659, The World Bank.
  7. Stephen V. Cameron & James J. Heckman, 1998. "Life Cycle Schooling and Dynamic Selection Bias: Models and Evidence for Five Cohorts of American Males," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(2), pages 262-333, April.
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