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The wage effects of immigration and emigration

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  • Docquier, Frederic
  • Ozden, Caglar
  • Peri, Giovanni

Abstract

Immigrants in Rome or Paris are more visible to the public eye than the Italian or French engineers in Silicon Valley, especially when it comes to the debate on the effects of immigration on the employment and wages of natives in high-income countries. This paper argues that such public fears, especially in European countries are misplaced; instead, more concern should be directed towards emigration. Using a new dataset on migration flows by education levels for the period 1990-2000, the results show the following: First, immigration had zero to small positive long-run effect on the average wages of natives, ranging from zero in Italy to +1.7 percent in Australia. Second, emigration had a mild to significant negative long-run effect ranging from zero for the US to -0.8 percent in the UK. Third, over the period 1990-2000, immigration generally improved the income distribution of European countries while emigration worsened it by increasing the wage gap between the high and low skilled natives. These patterns hold true using a range of parameters for the simulations, accounting for the estimates of undocumented immigrants, and correcting for the quality of schooling and/or labor-market downgrading of skills. All results go counter to the popular beliefs about migration, but they are due to the higher skill intensity of both emigration and immigration relative to non-migrants.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5556.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5556

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Keywords: Population Policies; Human Migrations&Resettlements; Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement; International Migration; Labor Markets;

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References

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Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Productivity vs immigration
    by chris dillow in Stumbling and Mumbling on 2011-04-07 12:58:12
  2. The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration
    by Ariel Goldring in Free Market Mojo on 2011-03-04 12:17:07
Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
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Cited by:
  1. Dequiedt, Vianney & Zenou, Yves, 2013. "International migration, imperfect information, and brain drain," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 62-78.
  2. Andrea Caragliu & Peter Nijkamp, 2013. "From Islands to Hubs of Innovation: Connecting Innovative Regions," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-141/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Francesco D'Amuri & Giovanni Peri, 2011. "Immigration, Jobs and Employment Protection: Evidence from Europe," NBER Working Papers 17139, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Andri Chassamboulli & Theodore Palivos, 2014. "A Search‐Equilibrium Approach To The Effects Of Immigration On Labor Market Outcomes," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 55, pages 111-129, 02.
  5. Giovanni Peri, 2012. "Immigration and Europe’s Demographic Problems: Analysis and Policy Considerations," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 9(4), pages 03-08, 02.
  6. Bertoli, Simone & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús, 2013. "Multilateral resistance to migration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 79-100.
  7. Ortega, Francesc & Peri, Giovanni, 2014. "Openness and income: The roles of trade and migration," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 231-251.
  8. Moritz Bonn, 2011. "The Effects of High Skilled Immigration in a Dual Labour Market with Union Wage Setting and Fiscal Redistribution," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201121, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
  9. Moritz Bonn, 2011. "High Skilled Immigration Policy and Union Wage Setting," Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge 147-11, Universität Siegen, Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Wirtschaftsinformatik und Wirtschaftsrecht, revised 27 Aug 2012.
  10. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "The Effect of Trade and Migration on Income," Working Papers 1213, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  11. Michael A. Clemens, 2011. "Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 83-106, Summer.
  12. Alessandra Venturini, 2012. "Methodological Aspects of Research on Flows Human Capital Flows: A survey," RSCAS Working Papers carim2012/01, European University Institute.
  13. E. Podrecca & G. Rossini, 2012. "Wages and international factors’ mobility," Working Papers wp826, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.

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