How to interpret the growing phenomenon of private tutoring : human capital deepening, inequality increasing, or waste of resources ?
AbstractPrivate tutoring is now a major component of the education sector in many developing countries, yet education policy too seldom acknowledges and makes use of it. Various criticisms have been raised against private tutoring, most notably that it exacerbates social inequalities and may even fail to improve student outcomes. This paper surveys the literature for evidence on private tutoring-the extent of the tutoring phenomenon, the factors that explain its growth, and its cost-effectiveness in improving student academic performance. It also presents a framework for assessing the efficiency and equity effects of tutoring. It concludes that tutoring can raise the effectiveness of the education system under certain reasonable assumptions, even taking into account equity concerns, and it offers guidance for attacking corruption and other problems that diminish the contributions of the tutoring sector.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4530.
Date of creation: 01 Feb 2008
Date of revision:
Teaching and Learning; Tertiary Education; Education For All; Primary Education;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-03-08 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2008-03-08 (Development)
- NEP-EDU-2008-03-08 (Education)
- NEP-HRM-2008-03-08 (Human Capital & Human Resource Management)
- NEP-LAB-2008-03-08 (Labour Economics)
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- Gurun, Ayfer & Millimet, Daniel L., 2008. "Does Private Tutoring Payoff?," IZA Discussion Papers 3637, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?—A case study from Jinan, China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-28.
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