Estimating real production and expenditures across nations : a proposal for improving the Penn World Tables
AbstractFrom its inception, the Penn World Tables (PWT), building on the International Comparisons Program (ICP) of the United Nations, has sought to compare the standard of living of individuals in different countries. That is, the term"real GDP per capita"as reported in the PWT is intended to represent the ability to purchase goods and services by a representative agent in the economy. The same is true of benchmark comparisons as published by the United Nations, Eurostat, or OECD. But this expenditure-side interpretation of real GDP is quite different from the uses to which benchmark ICP and PWT data are frequently applied, such as in growth regressions, where"real GDP"is intended to reflect the production side of the economy. In this paper the authors propose a new approach to international comparisons of real GDP measured from the output side. They modify the traditional Gary-Khamis system, which measures real GDP from the expenditure side using real domestic expenditure, to include differences in the terms of trade between countries. The analysis shows that this system has a strictly positive solution under mild assumptions. On the basis of a set of domestic final output, import, and export prices and values for 151 countries in 1996, differences between real GDP measured from the expenditure and output side can be substantial, especially for small open economies.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4166.
Date of creation: 01 Mar 2007
Date of revision:
Economic Theory&Research; Markets and Market Access; FreeTrade; Access to Markets; Trade Policy;
Other versions of this item:
- Robert C. Feenstra & Alan Heston & Marcel P. Timmer & Haiyan Deng, 2009. "Estimating Real Production and Expenditures across Nations: A Proposal for Improving the Penn World Tables," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(1), pages 201-212, February.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Alan Heston & Marcel P. Timmer & Haiyan Deng, 2004. "Estimating Real Production and Expenditures Across Nations: A Proposal for Improving the Penn World Tables," NBER Working Papers 10866, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Feenstra, Robert C. & Heston, Alan & Timmer, Marcel P. & Deng, Haiyan, 2007. "Estimating Real Production and Expenditures Across Nations: A Proposal for Improving the Penn World Tables," GGDC Research Memorandum, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen GD-95, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
- F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
- O47 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-03-17 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2007-03-17 (Development)
- NEP-INT-2007-03-17 (International Trade)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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