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Tariff retaliation versus financial compensation in the enforcement of international trade agreements

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  • Limao, Nuno
  • Saggi, Kamal

Abstract

The authors analyze whether financial compensation is preferable to the current system of dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization that permits member countries to impose retaliatory tariffs in response to trade violations committed by other members. They show that monetary fines are more efficient than tariffs in terms of granting compensation to injured parties when there are violations in equilibrium. However, fines suffer from an enforcement problem since they must be paid by the violating country. If fines must ultimately be supported by the threat of retaliatory tariffs, they fail to yield a more cooperative outcome than the current system. The authors also consider the use of bonds as a means of settling disputes. If bonds can be posted with a third party, they do not have to be supported by retaliatory tariffs and can improve the negotiating position of countries that are too small to threaten tariff retaliation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3873.

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Date of creation: 01 Apr 2006
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3873

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Keywords: Free Trade; International Trade and Trade Rules; Contract Law; Tax Law; Economic Theory&Research;

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References

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  8. Bagwell,K. & Mavroidis,P.C. & Staiger,R.W., 2003. "The case for auctioning countermeasures in the WTO," Working papers 14, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  9. Nuno Lim�o, 2007. "Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(3), pages 821-855.
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  11. Klimenko, Mikhail & Ramey, Garey & Watson, Joel, 2001. "Recurrent Trade Agreements and the Value of External Enforcement," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt9xm2x5w7, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  12. Hoekman, Bernard & Saggi, Kamal, 2007. "Tariff bindings and bilateral cooperation on export cartels," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 141-156, May.
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  14. van Damme, Eric, 1989. "Renegotiation-proof equilibria in repeated prisoners' dilemma," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 206-217, February.
  15. Bagwell, Kyle & Mavroidis, Petros C. & Staiger, Robert W., 2004. "The case for tradable remedies in WTO dispute settlement," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3314, The World Bank.
  16. Damme, E.E.C. van, 1989. "Renegotiation-proof equilibria in repeated prisoners' dilemma," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-154423, Tilburg University.
  17. Bagwell, Kyle & Mavroidis, Petros C. & Staiger, Robert W., 2007. "Auctioning countermeasures in the WTO," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 309-332, November.
  18. Nuno Limão, 2002. "Trade policy, cross-border externalities and lobbies: do linked agreements enforce more cooperative outcomes?," International Trade 0206002, EconWPA, revised 28 Jul 2002.
  19. Wilfred Ethier, 2004. "Intellectual Property Rights And Dispute Settlement In The World Trade Organization," Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 449-457, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Dluhosch, Barbara & Horgos, Daniel, 2012. "(When) Does Tit-for-Tat Diplomay in Trade Policy Pay Off?," Working Paper 116/2012, Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg.
  2. Nuno Limão & Kamal Saggi, 2013. "Size Inequality, Coordination Externalities and International Trade Agreements," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 13-00013, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  3. Bernard M. Hoekman & Petros C. Mavroidis, 2013. "Bite the Bullet: Trade Retaliation, EU Jurisprudence and the Law and Economics of 'Taking One for the Team'," RSCAS Working Papers 2013/32, European University Institute.
  4. Beshkar, Mostafa, 2010. "Trade skirmishes safeguards: A theory of the WTO dispute settlement process," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 35-48, September.
  5. Kilolo, Jean-Marc Malambwe, 2013. "Country size, trade liberalization and transfers," MPRA Paper 47996, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Hoekman, Bernard, 2011. "Proposals for WTO reform : a synthesis and assessment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5525, The World Bank.
  7. Richard Chisik, 2010. "Limited Incremental Linking and Unlinked Trade Agreements," Working Papers 023, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.

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