Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

How fair is workfare? gender, public works, and employment in rural Ethiopia

Contents:

Author Info

  • Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  • Yohannes, Yisehac

Abstract

The authors use the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey to examine the gender dimensions of public works. They use three rounds of a panel conducted in 1994-95 to explore the determinants of participation in, days worked, wages, and earnings from wage labor, food-for-work (FFW), and self-employment. Then they analyze public works data collected in 1997, together with program data collected in 2003. FFW operates in a similar fashion with other labor markets in Ethiopia where female participation is low. Gender differences are important in the participation decision, but operate differently in different types of labor markets. Better-educated women are more likely to participate in the wage labor market, while higher livestock holdings diminish participation more for women. Females with more schooling are also more likely to participate in FFW. Men’s and women’s participation in FFW and self-employment responds differently to household and community shocks. After controlling for selection in which gender plays an important role, gender disadvantages in the wage labor market and FFW are insignificant. Returns to schooling and height are consistently positive in both wage labor and FFW, suggesting returns to human capital investment, even in the low-skill labor markets of rural Ethiopia. Program characteristics significantly affect participation, with differential effects on men and women. Participation, days worked, wages, and earnings vary according to the type of project. Relative to infrastructure projects, water, social services, and other projects decrease participation probabilities. Distance has a strong negative effect on women’s participation relative to men’s.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/02/16/000112742_20050216124524/Rendered/PDF/wps3492.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3492.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 01 Jan 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3492

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Email:
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Labor Policies; Health Economics&Finance; Gender and Development; Environmental Economics&Policies; Public Health Promotion; Environmental Economics&Policies; Health Economics&Finance; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Housing&Human Habitats; Work&Working Conditions;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Hallman, Kelly & Ruel, Marie T., 2003. "Maquiladoras and market mamas," FCND discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 153, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Takashi Yamano & Harold Alderman & Luc Christiaensen, 2003. "Child growth, shocks, and food aid in rural Ethiopia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3128, The World Bank.
  3. Coady, David P., 2004. "Designing and evaluating social safety nets," FCND discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 172, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Jayne, Thomas S. & Strauss, John & Yamano, Takashi & Molla, Daniel, 2002. "Targeting of food aid in rural Ethiopia: chronic need or inertia?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 247-288, August.
  5. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  6. Frankenberg, Elizabeth & Thomas, Duncan, 2001. "Measuring power," FCND discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 113, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  7. Hallman, Kelly & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Ruel, Marie T. & de la Briere, Benedicte, 2003. "Childcare and work," FCND discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 151, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes Quisumbing, 2000. "Control and ownership of assets within rural Ethiopian households," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-27, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  9. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
  10. Hoddinott, John, 2004. "Examining the incentive effects of food aid on household behaviour in rural Ethiopia," FCND briefs, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 8, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  11. Clay, Edward J., 1986. "Rural public works and food-for-work: A survey," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 14(10-11), pages 1237-1252.
  12. Clay, Daniel C. & Molla, Daniel & Habtewold, Debebe, 1999. "Food aid targeting in Ethiopia: A study of who needs it and who gets it," Food Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 391-409, August.
  13. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
  14. Mary Eming Young, 2002. "From Early Child Development to Human Development : Investing in Our Children's Future," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13950, August.
  15. Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2003. "Food aid and child nutrition in rural Ethiopia," FCND briefs, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 158, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  16. Coady, David P., 2004. "Designing and evaluating social safety nets," FCND briefs, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 172, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  17. Agnes R. Quisumbing & John A. Maluccio, 2003. "Resources at Marriage and Intrahousehold Allocation: Evidence from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and South Africa," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(3), pages 283-327, 07.
  18. Ravallion, Martin, 1999. "Appraising Workfare," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 31-48, February.
  19. Webb, Patrick & von Braun, Joachim & Yohannes, Yisehac, 1992. "Famine in Ethiopia: policy implications of coping failure at national and household levels," Research reports, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 92, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  20. Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions," Papers, RAND - Reprint Series 95-12, RAND - Reprint Series.
  21. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 1999. "Income gains to the poor from workfare - estimates for Argentina's TRABAJAR Program," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2149, The World Bank.
  22. K. Subbarao, 1997. "Public Works as an Anti-Poverty Program: An Overview of Cross-Country Experience," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(2), pages 678-683.
  23. Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Ayal Kimhi, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and income inequality in southern Ethiopia," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 81-91, January.
  2. Peterman, Amber & Behrman, Julia & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2010. "A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries," IFPRI discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 975, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Caren A. Grown, 2006. "Quick Impact Initiatives For Gender Equality: A Menu of Options," Economics Working Paper Archive, Levy Economics Institute wp_462, Levy Economics Institute.
  4. Rodrigo, María F, 2013. "Public Works in Ethiopia. Crowding out on-farm labor?," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C., Agricultural and Applied Economics Association 150806, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  5. Gray, Clark & Mueller, Valerie, 2012. "Drought and Population Mobility in Rural Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 134-145.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3492. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.