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Sugar policies opportunity for change

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Author Info

  • Mitchell, Donald

Abstract

Sugar is one of the most policy distorted of all commodities, and the European Union, Japan, and the United States are among the worst offenders. But internal changes in the E.U. and U.S. sugar and sweetener markets and international trade commitments make change unavoidable and provide the best opportunity for policy reform in several decades. The nature of reforms can have very different consequences for developing countries. If existing polices in the E.U. and the U.S. are adjusted to accommodate higher imports under international commitments, many low-cost producers, such as Brazil, will lose because they do not currently have large quotas and are not included among the preferential countries. The benefits of sugar policy reform are greatest under multilateral reform, and according to recent studies, the global welfare gains of removal of all trade protection are estimated to total as much as $4.7 billion a year. In countries with the highest protection (Indonesia, Japan, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and the U.S.), net imports would increase by an estimated 15 million tons a year, which would create employment for nearly one million workers in developing countries. World sugar prices would increase by as much as 40 percent, while sugar prices in countries that heavily protect their markets would decline. Developing countries that have preferential access to the E.U. or U.S. sugar markets are likely to lose some of these preferences as sugar policies change. However, the value of preferential access is less than it appears because many of these producers have high production costs and would not produce at world market prices.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3222.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2004
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3222

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Keywords: Crops&Crop Management Systems; Food&Beverage Industry; Agricultural Industry; Agribusiness&Markets; Environmental Economics&Policies; Crops&Crop Management Systems; Agribusiness&Markets; Food&Beverage Industry; Environmental Economics&Policies; Agricultural Trade;

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References

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  1. Diop, Ndiame & Beghin, John C. & Sewadah, Mirvat, 2005. "Groundnut Policies, Global Trade Dynamics, and the Impact of Trade Liberalization," Staff General Research Papers 12231, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  2. Nancy Novack, 2002. "The rise of ethanol in rural America," Main Street Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Mar.
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Cited by:
  1. David Abler & John C. Beghin & David Blandford & Amani Elobeid, 2006. "U.S. Sugar Policy Options and Their Consequences under NAFTA and Doha," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 06-wp424, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  2. Scott McDonald & Cecilia Punt, 2004. "Trade Liberalisation, Efficiency and South Africa's Sugar Industry," Working Papers 2004012, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2004.
  3. Krivonos, Ekaterina & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2005. "Sugar Prices, Labour Income and Poverty in Brazil," CEPR Discussion Papers 5383, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Gotor, Elisabetta, 2009. "The Reform of the EU Sugar Trade Preferences toward Developing Countries in Light of the Economic Partnership Agreements," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 10(2).
  5. Zhuang, Renan & Koo, Won W., 2006. "Impacts of Sugar Free Trade Agreements on the U.S. Sugar Industry," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21486, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  6. Dominique van der Mensbrugghe & John C. Beghin & Don Mitchell, 2003. "Modeling Tariff Rate Quotas in a Global Context: The Case of Sugar Markets in OECD Countries," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 03-wp343, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  7. van Berkum, Siemen & Roza, Pim & van Tongeren, Frank W., 2005. "Impacts of the EU sugar policy reforms on developing countries," Report Series 29139, Agricultural Economics Research Institute.
  8. Andino, Jose & Taylor, Richard D. & Koo, Won W., 2006. "The Mexican Sweeteners Market and Sugar Exports to the United States," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21213, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  9. Elobeid, Amani E. & Beghin, John C., 2004. "Multilateral Trade and Agricultural Policy Reforms in Sugar Markets," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20045, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  10. Marzoughi, Hassan & Kennedy, P. Lynn, 2006. "The Impact of Central American Free Trade Area (CAFTA) on the United States sugar market," 2006 Annual Meeting, February 5-8, 2006, Orlando, Florida 35439, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
  11. Gotor, Elisabetta & Tsigas, Marinos E., 2011. "The impact of the EU sugar trade reform on poor households in developing countries: A general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 568-582, July.
  12. Mónica KJÖLLERSTRÖM, 2006. "The Special Status Of Agriculture In Latin American Free Trade Agreements," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 23, pages 73-106.
  13. van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique & Beghin, John C. & Mitchell, Don, 2003. "Implementing Tariff Rate Quotas In Cge Models: An Application To Sugar Trade Policies In Oecd Countries," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22098, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  14. Gohin, Alexandre & Bureau, Jean-Christophe, 2005. "Sugar Market Liberalization: Modeling the EU Supply of "C" Sugar," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24740, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  15. Yeboah, Osei-Agyeman & Parker, S. Janine, 2009. "Impact of Expanded United States Sugar Imports from CAFTA Countries on the Ethanol Market," 2009 Annual Meeting, January 31-February 3, 2009, Atlanta, Georgia 46027, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
  16. Nolte, Stephan, 2008. "The Future Of The World Sugar Market--A Spatial Price Equilibrium Analysis," 107th Seminar, January 30-February 1, 2008, Sevilla, Spain 6663, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  17. Hoekman, Bernard & Michalopoulos, Constantine & Winters, L. alan, 2003. "More favorable and differential treatment of developing countries : toward a new approach in the World Trade Organization," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3107, The World Bank.

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