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Cotton : Market setting, trade policies, and issues

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  • Baffes, John

Abstract

The value of world cotton production in 2000-01 has been estimated at about $20 billion, down from $35 billion in 1996-97 when cotton prices were 50 percent higher. Although cotton's share in world merchandise trade is insignificant (about 0.12 percent), it is very important to a number of developing countries. Cotton accounts for approximately 40 percent of total merchandise export earnings in Benin and Burkina Faso, and 30 percent in Chad, Mali, and Uzbekistan. Its contribution to GDP in these and other developing countries is substantial, ranging between 5 and 10 percent. Cotton supports the livelihoods of millions in developing countries (at least 10 million in West and Central Africa) where it is a typical, and often dominant, smallholder cash crop. The cotton market also has been subject to considerable market intervention-subsidization in the European Union and the United States, and taxation in Africa and Central Asia. During the past three seasons, annual direct support averaged $4.5 billion. The author reviews the market setting and policy issues and gives recommendations on how industrial and developing cotton-producing countries can improve the policy environment.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3218.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2004
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3218

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Keywords: Textiles; Apparel&Leather Industry; Agricultural Research; Economic Theory&Research; Crops&Crop Management Systems; Environmental Economics&Policies; Crops&Crop Management Systems; Textiles; Apparel&Leather Industry; Agricultural Research; Environmental Economics&Policies; Livestock&Animal Husbandry;

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  1. Bruce A. Babcock & John C. Beghin & Jacinto F. Fabiosa & Stephane De Cara & Amani Elobeid & Cheng Fang & Chad E. Hart & Murat Isik & Holger Matthey & Alexander E. Saak & Karen Kovarik & FAPRI Staff, 2002. "Doha Round of the World Trade Organization: Appraising Further Liberalization of Agricultural Markets, The," Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) Publications 02-wp317, Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) at Iowa State University.
  2. Louis M. Goreux & Paul R. Masson & Dhaneshwar Ghura & Ousmane Badiane, 2002. "Cotton Sector Strategies in West and Central Africa," IMF Working Papers 02/173, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Stephen Tokarick, 2003. "Measuring the Impact of Distortions in Agricultural Trade in Partial and General Equilibrium," IMF Working Papers 03/110, International Monetary Fund.
  4. Fang, Cheng & Beghin, John C., 2003. "Protection and Comparative Advantage of Chinese Agriculture: Implications for Regional and National Specialization," Staff General Research Papers 10102, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  5. Carl Pray & Danmeng Ma & Jikun Huang & Fangbin Qiao, 2001. "Impact of Bt Cotton in China," CEMA Working Papers 510, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
  6. Giannis Karagiannis & Christos Pantzios, . "To comply or Not to Comply with Policy Regulations: The Case of Greek Cotton Growers," Working Papers, University of Crete, Department of Economics 9817, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  7. Minot, Nicholas & Daniels, Lisa, 2002. "Impact of global cotton markets on rural poverty in Benin," MSSD discussion papers 48, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. repec:rus:hseeco:123040 is not listed on IDEAS
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Surabhi Mittal, 2007. "Oecd Agricultural Trade Reforms Impact On India’s Prices And Producers Welfare," Trade Working Papers 22225, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  2. Claire Delpeuch & Anneleen Vandeplas & Johan F.M.Swinnen, 2011. "Revisiting the "cotton problem": A comparative analysis of cotton reforms in sub-Saharan Africa," LICOS Discussion Papers, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven 29011, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  3. Richard Pomfret, 2004. "Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO Accession: Regionalism and Integration into the World Economy," School of Economics Working Papers 2004-13, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
  4. Shepherd, Ben & Delpeuch, Claire, 2007. "Subsidies and regulatory reform in West African cotton: What are the development stakes?," MPRA Paper 2289, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Baffes, John & Gohou, Gaston, 2005. "The co-movement between cotton and polyester prices," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3534, The World Bank.
  6. Kaminski, Jonathan & Thomas, Alban, 2009. "Commodity Reform and Extensive Production Growth: Evidence from Burkinabè Cotton Farmers," TSE Working Papers 09-008, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
  7. Stephen Tokarick, 2008. "Dispelling Some Misconceptions about Agricultural Trade Liberalization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(1), pages 199-216, Winter.
  8. KAMINSKI Jonathan & THOMAS Alban, 2009. "Commodity Reform and Extensive Production Growth: Evidence from Burkinabè cotton farmers," LERNA Working Papers, LERNA, University of Toulouse 09.01.277, LERNA, University of Toulouse.
  9. Pan, Suwen & Welch, Mark & Mohanty, Samarendu & Fadiga, Mohamadou L. & Ethridge, Don E., 2005. "Assessing the Impacts of the Chinese TRQ System and U.S. Subsidies on the World Cotton Market," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 6(2).
  10. Berk Özler & Giovanna Prennushi, 2006. "Toward Greater Global Equity," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 32, pages 3-15.
  11. Kaminski, Jonathan & Thomas, Alban, 2010. "Land Use, Production Growth, and the Institutional Environment of Smallholders: Evidence from Burkinabe Cotton Farmers," Discussion Papers 93136, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
  12. Kaminski, Jonathan, 2008. "Wealth, Living Standards and Perceptions in a Cotton Economy: Evidence from the Cotton Reform in Burkina Faso," Discussion Papers 45780, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
  13. Kenneth Reinert, 2007. "The European Union, the Doha Round, and Asia," Asia Europe Journal, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 317-330, September.
  14. Kaminski, Jonathan, 2008. "Changing Incentives to Sow Cotton for African Farmers: Evidence from the Burkina Faso Reform," Discussion Papers 45779, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
  15. Onumah, Gideon & Davis, Junior & Kleih, Ulrich & Proctor, Felicity, 2007. "Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets: Changing agricultural marketing systems and innovative responses by producer organizations," MPRA Paper 25984, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  16. Tonshia Luster & Andrew Barkley, 2011. "The Economic Determinants of the Number of Minority Farmers in the Southeast Region of the United States, 1969-1997," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 83-101, March.

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