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The"Glass of Milk"subsidy program and malnutrition in Peru

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  • Stifel, David
  • Alderman, Harold

Abstract

The authors evaluate the Vaso de Leche (VL) feeding program in Peru. They pose the question that if a community-based multistage targeting scheme such as that of the VL program is progressive, is it possible that the program can achieve its nutritional objectives? The authors address this by linking VL public expenditure data with household survey data to assess the targeting, and then to model the determinants of nutritional outcomes of children to see if VL program interventions have an impact on nutrition. They confirm that the VL program is well targeted to poor households and to those with low nutritional status. While the bulk of the coverage of the poor is attributed to targeting of poor districts, the fact that the poor receive larger in-kind transfers is attributed to intradistrict targeting. But the impactof these food subsidies beyond their value as income transfers is limited by the degree to which the commodity transfers are inframarginal. The authors find that transfers of milk and milk substitutes from the VL program are inframarginal for approximately half of the households that receive them. So, it is not entirely surprising that they fail to find econometric evidence of the nutritional objectives of the VL program being achieved. In models of child standardized heights, the authors find no impact of the VL program expenditures on the nutritional outcomes of young children-the group to whom the program is targeted.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3089.

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Date of creation: 30 Jun 2003
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3089

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Keywords: Poverty Monitoring&Analysis; Services&Transfers to Poor; Public Health Promotion; Poverty Impact Evaluation; Housing&Human Habitats; Services&Transfers to Poor; Rural Poverty Reduction; Safety Nets and Transfers; Poverty Monitoring&Analysis; Poverty Impact Evaluation;

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References

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  1. Schady, Norbert R., 2000. "Picking the poor : indicators for geographic targeting in Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2477, The World Bank.
  2. Alderman, H. & Chiappori, P.A. & Haddad, L., 1994. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," DELTA Working Papers 94-17, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  3. Duclos, Jean-Yves, 1995. "Modelling the take-up of state support," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 391-415, November.
  4. David E. Sahn & David Stifel, 2003. "Exploring Alternative Measures of Welfare in the Absence of Expenditure Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 49(4), pages 463-489, December.
  5. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1998. "Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data - or tears : with an application to educational enrollments in states of India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1994, The World Bank.
  6. Lanjouw, Peter & Ravallion, Martin, 1999. "Benefit Incidence, Public Spending Reforms, and the Timing of Program Capture," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 257-73, May.
  7. D. E. Sahn & D. C. Stifel, 2002. "Parental Preferences for Nutrition of Boys and Girls: Evidence from Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 21-45.
  8. Galasso, Emanuela & Ravallion, Martin, 2005. "Decentralized targeting of an antipoverty program," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(4), pages 705-727, April.
  9. Conning, Jonathan & Kevane, Michael, 2002. "Community-Based Targeting Mechanisms for Social Safety Nets: A Critical Review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 375-394, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Philippe De Vreyer & Javier Herrera & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps, 2005. "Consumption growth and spatial poverty traps: an analysis of the effect of social services and community infrastructures on living standards in rural Peru," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 124, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  2. World Bank, 2007. "Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7693, The World Bank.
  3. Robert T. Jensen & Nolan H. Miller, 2010. "Do Consumer Price Subsidies Really Improve Nutrition?," NBER Working Papers 16102, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Aturupane, Harsha & Deolalikar, Anil B. & Gunewardena, Dileni, 2008. "The Determinants of Child Weight and Height in Sri Lanka: A Quantile Regression Approach," Working Paper Series RP2008/53, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  5. De Hoop, Thomas & Van Kempen, Luuk & Fort, Ricardo, 2010. "Do people invest in local public goods with long-term benefits: Experimental evidence from a shanty town in Peru," MPRA Paper 24968, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Das, Jishnu & Quy-Toan Do & Ozler, Berk, 2004. "Conditional cash transfers and the equity-efficiency debate," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3280, The World Bank.
  7. Daniel O. Gilligan & John Hoddinott, 2007. "Is There Persistence in the Impact of Emergency Food Aid? Evidence on Consumption, Food Security, and Assets in Rural Ethiopia," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 225-242.
  8. Norbert Schady, 2006. "Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
  9. Gustavo Yamada & Juan Castro, 2007. "Poverty, inequality, and social policies in Peru: As poor as it gets," Working Papers 07-06, Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico, revised Feb 2007.
  10. Daniel Cotlear, 2006. "A New Social Contract for Peru: An Agenda for Improving Education, Health Care, and the Social Safety Net," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6990, October.
  11. Paxson, Christina & Schady, Norbert, 2004. "Child health and the 1988-92 economic crisis in Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3260, The World Bank.
  12. Tusiime, Hamidu A. & Renard, Robrecht & Smets, Lodewijk, 2013. "Food aid and household food security in a conflict situation: Empirical evidence from Northern Uganda," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 14-22.
  13. Brown, Timothy Tyler, 2014. "How effective are public health departments at preventing mortality?," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 13(C), pages 34-45.
  14. Kandpal, Eeshani, 2011. "Beyond Average Treatment Effects: Distribution of Child Nutrition Outcomes and Program Placement in India's ICDS," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1410-1421, August.

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