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Poverty, AIDS, and children's schooling - a targeting dilemma

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  • Ainsworth, Martha
  • Filmer, Deon

Abstract

The authors analyze the relationship between orphan status, household wealth, and child school enrollment using data collected in the 1990s from 28 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and one country in Southeast Asia. The findings point to considerable diversity-so much so that generalizations are not possible. While there are some examples of large differentials in enrollment by orphan status, in the majority of cases the orphan enrollment gap is dwarfed by the gap between children from richer and poorer households. In some cases, even non-orphaned children from the top of the wealth distribution have low enrollments, pointing to fundamental issues in the supply or demand for schooling that are a constraint to higher enrollments of all children. The gap in enrollment between female and male orphans is not much different than the gap between girls and boys with living parents, suggesting that female orphans are not disproportionately affected in terms of their enrollment in most countries. These diverse findings demonstrate that the extent to which orphans are under-enrolled relative to other children is country-specific, at least in part because the correlation between orphan status and poverty is not consistent across countries. Social protection and schooling policies need to assess the specific country situation before considering mitigation measures.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2885.

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Date of creation: 30 Sep 2002
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2885

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Related research

Keywords: Children and Youth; Primary Education; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Public Health Promotion; Street Children; Children and Youth; Street Children; Youth and Governance; Primary Education; HIV AIDS;

References

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  1. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1998. "Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data - or tears : with an application to educational enrollments in states of India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1994, The World Bank.
  2. Nyambedha, Erick Otieno & Wandibba, Simiyu & Aagaard-Hansen, Jens, 2001. "Policy implications of the inadequate support systems for orphans in Western Kenya," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 83-96, October.
  3. Filmer, Deon, 2000. "The structure of social disparities in education : gender and wealth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2268, The World Bank.
  4. Deon Filmer & Lant Pritchett, 1999. "The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 25(1), pages 85-120.
  5. World Bank, 2000. "World Development Indicators 2000," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13828, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Richard Akresh, 2004. "Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso," Working Papers 897, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  2. Mather, David & Donovan, Cynthia, 2008. "The Impacts of Prime-Age Adult Mortality on Rural Household Income, Assets, and Poverty in Mozambique," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 56071, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  3. Yamano, Takashi & Jayne, Thomas S., 2004. "Working-Age Adult Mortality and Primary School Attendance in Rural Kenya," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 55159, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  4. Asiamah, Selloane & Kraybill, David S. & Thompson, Stanley R., 2005. "Does Orphan Status Affect Primary School Attendance? An Analysis of Household Survey Data from Uganda," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19489, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  5. David Canning, 2006. "The Economics of HIV/AIDS in Low-Income Countries: The Case for Prevention," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(3), pages 121-142, Summer.
  6. Peichl, Andreas & Pestel, Nico, 2010. "Multidimensional Measurement of Richness: Theory and an Application to Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 4825, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Megan Louw, 2003. "Orphans of the HIV/Aids epidemic: An impending crisis for South African development," Working Papers 01/2003, Stellenbosch University, Department of Economics.
  8. World Bank, 2007. "Zambia : Poverty and Vulnerabiltiy Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7863, The World Bank.
  9. Serra, Renata, 2009. "Child fostering in Africa: When labor and schooling motives may coexist," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 157-170, January.
  10. Christopher Ksoll, 2007. "Family Networks and Orphan Caretaking in Tanzania," Economics Series Working Papers 361, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  11. Ng'ondi, Naftali Bernard, 2012. "Socio-demographic and service provision characteristics associated with primary school attendance among the Most Vulnerable Children in Tanzania," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2255-2262.
  12. Alexander A. Weinreb & Patrick Gerland & Peter Fleming, 2008. "Hotspots and Coldspots: Household and village-level variation in orphanhood prevalence in rural Malawi," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(32), pages 1217-1248, July.
  13. David Bishai & Heena Brahmbhatt & Ron Gray & Godfrey Kigozi & David Serwadda & Nelson Sewankambo & El Daw Suliman & Fred Wabwire-Mangen & Maria Wawer, 2003. "Does biological relatedness affect child survival?," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 8(9), pages 261-278, May.
  14. de Walque, Damien, 2005. "Parental education and children's schooling outcomes : is the effect nature, nurture, or both? evidence from recomposed families in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3483, The World Bank.
  15. Ravallion, Martin, 2005. "On the contribution of demographic change to aggregate poverty measures for the developing world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3580, The World Bank.
  16. Coneus, Katja & Mühlenweg, Andrea M., 2011. "Orphans at risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence on educational and health outcomes," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-008, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  17. T. Paul Schultz, 2003. "Evidence of Returns to Schooling in Africa from Household Surveys: Monitoring and Restructuring the Market for Education," Working Papers 875, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.

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