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Markups, entry regulation, and trade - Does country size matter?

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  • Hoekman, Bernard
  • Hiau Looi Kee
  • Olarreaga, Marcelo

Abstract

Actual, and potential competition is a powerful source of discipline on the pricing behavior of firms with market power. The authors develop a simple model that shows that the effects of new entry, and import competition on industry price-cost markups, depend on country size. The authors predicted that barriers to domestic entry would have a stronger anti-competitive effect in large countries, while barriers to foreign entry (imports) would have a stronger effect in small countries. After estimating markups for manufacturing sectors in forty-one industrial, and developing countries, they test these hypotheses, and find that the hypotheses cannot be rejected by the data. For example, although Indonesia, and Italy impose the same number of regulations on the entry of new firms, the effect of the regulations on manufacturing markups is twenty percent greater in Italy because of its larger size. Similarly, while Chile and Zimbabwe have the same import penetration ration, the market discipline effect of imports is thirteen percent greater in Zimbabwe because of its smaller size.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2662.

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Date of creation: 31 Aug 2001
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2662

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Keywords: Water Treatment&Quality; Roads&Highways; Montreal Protocol; Water Conservation; Coastal and Marine Resources; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Water and Industry; Trade and Regional Integration; Banks&Banking Reform;

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References

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  1. Damien NEVEN & Paul SEABRIGHT, 1995. "Trade Liberalisation and the Co-ordination of Competition Policy," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9503, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
  2. Susanto Basu & John G. Fernald, 1995. "Are Apparent Productive Spillovers a Figment of Specification Error?," NBER Working Papers 5073, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Harrison, Ann E., 1994. "Productivity, imperfect competition and trade reform : Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 53-73, February.
  4. Horn, Henrik & Levinsohn, James, 2001. "Merger Policies and Trade Liberalisation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(470), pages 244-76, April.
  5. Richardson, Martin, 1999. "Trade and Competition Policies: Concordia Discors?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(4), pages 649-64, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Rumen Dobrinsky & Gabor Korosi & Nikolay Markov & Laszlo Halpern, 2004. "Firms’ Price Markups and Returns to Scale in Imperfect Markets - Bulgaria and Hungary," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0412, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  2. Kee, Hiau Looi & Hoekman, Bernard, 2007. "Imports, entry and competition law as market disciplines," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 831-858, May.
  3. Guilloux, S. & Kharroubi, E., 2008. "Some Preliminary Evidence on the Globalization-Inflation Nexus," Working papers 195, Banque de France.
  4. Aldaba, Rafaelita M., 2005. "The Impact of Market Reforms on Competition, Structure and Performance of the Philippine Economy," Discussion Papers DP 2005-24, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
  5. Boulhol, Hervé & Dobbelaere, Sabien & Maioli, Sara, 2006. "Imports as Product and Labor Market Discipline," IZA Discussion Papers 2178, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Clarke, George R. G., 2005. "Do government policies that promote competition encourage or discourage new product and process development in low and middle-income countries?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3471, The World Bank.
  7. Hervé Boulhol, 2005. "The convergence of price-cost margins," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla05056, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  8. Alejandro Castañeda, 2003. "Mexican manufacturing markups: procyclical behavior and the impact of trade liberalization," Economia Mexicana NUEVA EPOCA, , vol. 0(2), pages 209-230, July-Dece.
  9. Hervé Boulhol, 2005. "Why haven't price-cost margins decreased with globalization ?," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla06007, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  10. repec:hal:cesptp:halshs-00084267 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Paolo Epifani & Gino Gancia, 2004. "Increasing Returns, Imperfect Competition and Factor Prices," Working Papers 210, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  12. Saatci, Mustafa & Aslan, Alper, 2007. "TÜRKİYE İMALAT SANAYİNDE İTHALATIN PİYASAYI DİSİPLİNE ETME HİPOTEZİNİN TESTİ: PANEL VERi YAKLASIMI," MPRA Paper 10604, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Aslan, Alper & Kula, Ferit, 2008. "Türkiye İmalat Sanayinde Fiyat-Maliyet Marjları: Dönemler ve Sektörler İtibariyle Karsılastırmalı Bir Analiz," MPRA Paper 10606, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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