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Demand for World Bank lending

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  • Ratha, Dilip

Abstract

Bridging the external financing gap has been an important factor in borrowing cgovernment's demand for World Bank loans. The demand for IBRD and IDA lending is positively related to an increase in debt service payments and inversely related to a borrowing country's level of reserves. These two variables explain a large part of the variation in IBRD and IDA lending commitments, not only since the Asian crisis but also during tranquil times over the past two decades. Borrowing to service debt during a crisis is consistent with the Bank's role as a lender of last resort as well as with its core development objectives, but such borrowing during tranquil times may conflict with the Bank's long-term objective ofreducing poverty. That investment lending commitments are related to debt service payments implies that aid may be more fungible than previously believed. If Bank lending is fungible and there is no guarantee that a particular Bank loan is financing an identified investment project or program, a case could be made for greater use of programmatic lending (with well-defined conditionality) As developing countries become larger and more integrated with volatile international capaital markets, there is also likely to be a greater need for fast-disbursing, contingent program lending facilities from the Bank.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2652.

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Date of creation: 31 Jul 2001
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2652

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Keywords: Economic Adjustment and Lending; Payment Systems&Infrastructure; Financial Intermediation; Economic Theory&Research; Banks&Banking Reform; Financial Intermediation; Banks&Banking Reform; Strategic Debt Management; Economic Theory&Research; Economic Adjustment and Lending;

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References

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  1. Burnside, Craig & Dollar, David, 1997. "Aid, policies, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1777, The World Bank.
  2. David H. Romer & Christina D. Romer, 2000. "Federal Reserve Information and the Behavior of Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 429-457, June.
  3. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Rajkumar, Andrew Sunil & Swaroop, Vinaya, 1999. "What does aid to Africa finance?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2092, The World Bank.
  4. Polak, J.J., 1991. "The Changing Nature of IMF Conditionality," Princeton Studies in International Economics 184, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
  5. Birdsall, Nancy & Claessens, Stijn & Diwan, Ishac, 2002. "Will HIPC Matter? The Debt Game and Donor Behaviour in Africa," CEPR Discussion Papers 3297, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Evrensel, Ayse Y., 2004. "Lending to developing countries revisited: changing nature of lenders and payment problems," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 235-256, September.
  7. Jacques J. Polak, 1991. "The Changing Nature of IMF Conditionality," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 41, OECD Publishing.
  8. Svensson, J., 1995. "When Is Foreign Aid Policy Credible? Aid Dependence and Conditionality," Papers 600, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  9. Rodrik, Dani, 1995. "Why is there Multilateral Lending?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1207, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Dasgupta, Dipak & Ratha, Dilip, 2000. "What factors appear to drive private capital flows to developing countries? and how does official lending respond?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2392, The World Bank.
  11. Alesina, Alberto & Dollar, David, 2000. " Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 33-63, March.
  12. Claessens, Stijn & Detragiache, Enrica & Kanbur, Ravi & Wickham, Peter, 1996. "Analytical aspects of the debt problems of heavily indebted poor countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1618, The World Bank.
  13. Ratha, Dilip, 2001. "Complementarity between multilateral lending and private flows to developing countries : some empirical results," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2746, The World Bank.
  14. Lensink, Robert & White, Howard, 1998. "Does the Revival of International Private Capital Flows Mean the End of Aid?: An Analysis of Developing Countries' Access to Private Capital," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1221-1234, July.
  15. Easterly, William, 1999. "The ghost of financing gap: testing the growth model used in the international financial institutions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 423-438, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Silvia Marchesi & Alessandro Missale, 2012. "Did high debts distort loans and grants allocation to IDA countries?," Working Papers 226, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2012.
  2. Easterly, William, 2005. "What did structural adjustment adjust?: The association of policies and growth with repeated IMF and World Bank adjustment loans," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 1-22, February.
  3. David Roodman, 2004. "An Index of Donor Performance," Development and Comp Systems 0412004, EconWPA.
  4. Mariarosaria Agostino, 2004. "Conditionality, Commitment and Investment Response in LDCs," Economics Working Papers 2004-10, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  5. Abalkina, Anna & Libman, Alexander & Yu, Xiofan, 2013. "Development Finance in the BRIC Countries," MPRA Paper 54375, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Humphrey, Chris & Michaelowa, Katharina, 2013. "Shopping for Development: Multilateral Lending, Shareholder Composition and Borrower Preferences," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 142-155.
  7. Michaelowa, Katharina & Humphrey, Chris, 2011. "The Business of Development: Trends in Lending by Multilateral Development Banks to Latin America, 1980-2009," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 57, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  8. Agostino, Mariarosaria, 2008. "World Bank Conditional Loans and Private Investment in Recipient Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 1692-1708, October.
  9. Ratha, Dilip, 2001. "Complementarity between multilateral lending and private flows to developing countries : some empirical results," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2746, The World Bank.

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