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Implications of the currency crisis for exchange rate arrangements in emerging East Asia

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  • Kawai, Masahiro
  • Akiyama, Shigeru

Abstract

The authors examine the implications of the East Asian currency crisis for exchange rate arrangements in the region's emerging market economies. They focus on the roles of the U.S. dollar, the Japanese yen, and the euro in the emerging East Asian economies'exchange rate policies. They claim that these economies are particularly susceptible to large exchange rate fluctuations because they have been pursuing financial deregulation, opening markets, and liberalizing capital accounts, and becausethey face increased risk of sudden capital flow reversals, with attendant instability in their financial system and foreign exchange market. The authors find that the dollar's role as the dominant anchor currency in East Asia was reduced during the recent currency crisis but has become prominent again since late 1998. It is too early for conclusions, but the economies seem likely to maintain more flexible exchange rate arrangements, at least officially. At the same time, these economies presumably will continue to prefer to maintain exchange rate stability without fixed rate commitments. They are better off choosing a balanced currency basket system in which the yen and the euro play a more important role than before. The ASEAN countries have a special incentive to avoid harmful fluctuations in exchange rates within the region, which could suddenly alter their international price competitiveness and make prospective free trade agreements unsuitable. So they may stabilize their exchange rates against similar currency baskets, to ensure intraregional exchange rate stability.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2502.

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Date of creation: 31 Dec 2000
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2502

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Keywords: Economic Stabilization; Economic Theory&Research; Foreign Trade Promotion and Regulation; Fiscal&Monetary Policy; Macroeconomic Management;

References

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  1. Lane, P & Honohan, P, 1999. "Pegging To The Dollar And The Euro," Trinity Economics Papers 996, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  2. Eichengreen, Barry, 1998. "The Euro as a Reserve Currency," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 483-506, December.
  3. Kawai, Masahiro & Akiyama, Shigeru, 1998. "The Role of Nominal Anchor Currencies in Exchange Rate Arrangements," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 334-387, December.
  4. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Shang-Jin Wei, 1993. "Emerging Currency Blocs," NBER Working Papers 4335, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Ronald I. McKinnon & Kenichi Ohno, 1997. "Dollar and Yen: Resolving Economic Conflict between the United States and Japan," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262133350, December.
  6. Peter M. Garber, 1996. "The Use of the Yen as a Reserve Currency," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 14(2), pages 1-21, December.
  7. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Shang-Jin Wei, 1992. "Yen bloc or dollar bloc: exchange rate policies of the East Asian economies," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 93-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  8. Paul R. Masson & Bart Turtelboom, 1997. "Characteristics of the Euro, the Demand for Reserves, and Policy Coordination Under EMU," IMF Working Papers 97/58, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Bayoumi, T. & Eichengreen, B., 1994. "One Money or Many? Analysing the Prospects for Monetary Unification in Various Parts of the World," Princeton Studies in International Economics 76, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
  10. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 1995. "The Mirage of Fixed Exchange Rates," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 73-96, Fall.
  11. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2000. "Fear of Floating," NBER Working Papers 7993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Ito, Takatoshi & Ogawa, Eiji & Sasaki, Yuri Nagataki, 1998. "How Did the Dollar Peg Fail in Asia?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 256-304, December.
  13. Bayoumi, Tamim & Eichengreen, Barry & Mauro, Paolo, 2000. "On Regional Monetary Arrangements For ASEAN," CEPR Discussion Papers 2411, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Andrew Berg & Paolo Mauro & Michael Mussa & Alexander K. Swoboda & Esteban Jadresic & Paul R. Masson, 2000. "Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy," IMF Occasional Papers 193, International Monetary Fund.
  15. Takatoshi Ito & Anne O. Krueger, 1994. "Macroeconomic Linkage: Savings, Exchange Rates, and Capital Flows, NBER-EASE Volume 3," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_94-1, May.
  16. Barry Eichengreen., 1993. "International Monetary Arrangements for the 21st Century," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-021, University of California at Berkeley.
  17. Jeffrey A. Frankel and Shang-Jin Wei., 1993. "Is There a Currency Bloc in the Pacific?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-025, University of California at Berkeley.
  18. Hausmann, Ricardo & Panizza, Ugo & Stein, Ernesto, 2001. "Why do countries float the way they float?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 387-414, December.
  19. Yusuru Ozeki & George S. Tavlas, 1992. "The Internationalization of Currencies," IMF Occasional Papers 90, International Monetary Fund.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Eichengreen, Barry, 2002. "Lessons of the Euro for the Rest of the World," Institute of European Studies, Working Paper Series qt16g425jb, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley.
  2. Ogawa, Eiji & Yang, Doo Yong, 2008. "The dilemma of exchange rate arrangements in East Asia," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 217-235, March.
  3. Ronald McKinnon & Gunther Schnabl, 2002. "Synchronized Business Cycles in East Asia: Fluctuations in the Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate and China’s Stabilizing Role," Working Papers 02010, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  4. Ronald McKinnon & Gunther Schnabl, 2003. "The East Asian Dollar Standard, Fear of Floating, and Original Sin," Working Papers 112003, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  5. Pontines, Victor & Siregar, Reza, 2009. "Intervention index and exchange rate regimes: the cases of selected East-Asian economies," MPRA Paper 17138, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Gordon de Brouwer, 2002. "The IMF and East Asia: A Changing Regional Financial Architecture," Asia Pacific Economic Papers 324, Australia-Japan Research Centre, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  7. Chow, Hwee Kwan & Kim, Yoonbai & Sun, Wei, 2007. "Characterizing exchange rate policy in East Asia: A reconsideration," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 448-465, June.
  8. OGAWA Eiji & YOSHIMI Taiyo, 2009. "Analysis on β and σ Convergences of East Asian Currencies," Discussion papers 09018, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  9. Eiji Ogawa & Taiyo Yoshimi, 2009. "Analysis on ƒÀ and ƒÐ Convergences of East Asian Currencies," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd08-049, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  10. Ronald I. McKinnon, 2001. "After the Crisis, The East Asian Dollar Standard Resurrected: An Interpretation of High Frequency Exchange Rate Pegging," Working Papers 042001, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  11. Eiji Ogawa & Junko Shimizu, 2006. "Stabilization of Effective Exchange Rates Under Common Currency Basket Systems," NBER Working Papers 12198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Ogawa, Eiji & Shimizu, Junko, 2006. "Stabilization of effective exchange rates under common currency basket systems," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 590-611, December.
  13. Mamoru Nagano, 2005. "Investment And Export-Led Industrialization: Financial Constraints And Export Promotion Of East Asian Firms," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 81-93, June.
  14. Kawai, Masahiro & Takagi, Shinji, 2000. "Proposed strategy for a regional exchange rate arrangement in post-crisis East Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2503, The World Bank.
  15. Kwack, Sung Y., 2005. "Exchange rate and monetary regime options for regional cooperation in East Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 57-75, February.

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