The political economy of financial repression in transition economies
AbstractFinancial systems in developing countries tend to be"restricted"or"repressed"through burdensome reserve requirements, interest-rate ceilings, foreign-exchange regulations, rules about the composition of bank balance sheets, or heavy taxation of the financial sector. Why are governments drawn to regulate financial markets to the point of financial repression? To address this question, the authors explore preliminary evidence from the post-Communist economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where financial regulations have rarely been examined systematically. They find that public-finance framework has limited ability to explain financial repression in the transition economies, given the peculiar financial lineage of the socialist state. The weak distinction between"public"and"private"spheres of finance in transition economies means that the deficit often conveys little information about the governments'real fiscal activities. It is more fruitful to examine how political institutions, by shaping the incentives politicians face, affect financial policy. Their findings suggest that post-Communist governments may adopt repressive financial controls - not to finance deficits more cheaply than would be the caseunder financial liberalization, but to maintain the authority and ensure the survival of those in power. In countries where pre-reform elites are plentiful in legislative bodies, where interparty competition is low, and where government parties are well-represented in parliaments, elites have been able to perpetuate a system of implicit subsidies by"softening up"the financial sector - especially commercial banks - to ensure the continued flow of cheap credit to specific borrowers. The main beneficiaries of these policies - large formerly state-owned industries with tight financial links to the largest commercial banks - are thus able to convert their well-established claims on public resources into preferential access to credit lines. In other words, financial repression in transition economies may simply serve to solidify main-bank, main-firm relations. These results would lend support to the claim of smaller, cash-starved Eastern European entrepreneurs that the commercial banks have"taken over the role of the old planning ministries."
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2030.
Date of creation: 31 Dec 1998
Date of revision:
Banks&Banking Reform; Financial Intermediation; Payment Systems&Infrastructure; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Environmental Economics&Policies; National Governance; Financial Intermediation; Banks&Banking Reform; Economic Theory&Research;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brock, Philip L, 1989. "Reserve Requirements and the Inflation Tax," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(1), pages 106-21, February.
- Kornai, Janos, 1992. "The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198287766.
- King, Robert G & Levine, Ross, 1993.
"Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-37, August.
- Alesina, Alberto & Drazen, Allan, 1991.
"Why Are Stabilizations Delayed?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1170-88, December.
- Roubini, Nouriel & Sachs, Jeffrey D., 1989. "Political and economic determinants of budget deficits in the industrial democracies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 903-933, May.
- Roubini, Nouriel & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1995.
"A growth model of inflation, tax evasion, and financial repression,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 275-301, April.
- Nouriel Roubini & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1992. "A Growth Model of Inflation, Tax Evasion, and Financial Repression," NBER Working Papers 4062, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Roubini, N. & Sala-i-Martin, X., 1992. "A Growth Model of Inflation, Tax Evasion and Financial Repression," Papers 658, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Giovannini, Alberto & de Melo, Martha, 1993. "Government Revenue from Financial Repression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(4), pages 953-63, September.
- Haggard, Stephan & Webb, Steven B, 1993. "What Do We Know about the Political Economy of Economic Policy Reform?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 143-68, July.
- Luca Barbone & Domenico Marchetti, 1995.
"Transition and the fiscal crisis in Central Europe,"
The Economics of Transition,
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 3(1), pages 59-74, 03.
- Luca Barbone & Domenico J. Marchetti, 1995. "Transition and the Fiscal Crisis in Central Europe," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0040, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
- Vito Tanzi, 1993. "Fiscal Policy and the Economic Restructuring of Economies in Transition," IMF Working Papers 93/22, International Monetary Fund.
- Easterly, William, 1993.
"How much do distortions affect growth?,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 187-212, November.
- Van Wijnbergen, S., 1985. "Macro-economic effects of changes in bank interest rates : Simulation results for South Korea," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2-3), pages 541-554, August.
- Pradhan, S., 1996. "Evaluating Public Spending: A Framework for Public Expenditure Reviews," World Bank - Discussion Papers 323, World Bank.
- Rodrik, Dani, 1993. "The Positive Economics of Policy Reform," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 356-61, May.
- Buffie, Edward F., 1984. "Financial repression, the new structuralists, and stabilization policy in semi-industrialized economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 305-322, April.
- Bencivenga, Valerie R & Smith, Bruce D, 1992.
"Deficits, Inflation, and the Banking System in Developing Countries: The Optimal Degree of Financial Repression,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 44(4), pages 767-90, October.
- Bencivenga, V.R. & Smith, B.D., 1990. "Deficits, Inflation, And The Banking System In Developing Countries: The Optimal Degree Of Financial Repression," RCER Working Papers 214, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Nouriel Roubini & Jeffrey Sachs, 1988. "Political and Economic Determinants of Budget Deficits in the IndustrialDemocracies," NBER Working Papers 2682, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Benjamin E. Diokno, 2010. "Philippine fiscal behavior in recent history," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 47(1), pages 39-87, June.
- Kalbe Abbas & Manzoor Hussain Malik, 2010.
"Impact of Financial Liberalisation and Deregulation on Banking Sector in Pakistan,"
Finance Working Papers
23068, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
- Kalbe Abbas & Manzoor Hussain Malik, 2008. "Impact of Financial Liberalisation and Deregulation on Banking Sector in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(3), pages 287-313.
- Kalbe Abbas & Manzoor Hussain Malik, 2010. "Impact of Financial Liberalisation and Deregulation on Banking Sector in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2010:64, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Swamy, Vighneswara, 2011. "Does Government Intervention in Credit Deployment Cause Inclusive Growth? – An Evidence from Indian Banking," MPRA Paper 48100, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lücke, Matthias & Spinanger, Dean, 2004. "Liberalizing international trade in services: Challenges and opportunities for developing countries," Kiel Discussion Papers 412, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.