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Gender disparity in South Asia : comparisons between and within countries

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  • Filmer, Deon
  • King, Elizabeth M.
  • Pritchett, Lant

Abstract

Using data assembled from the Demographic Health Surveys of over 50 countries and from the National Family Health Surveys of individual states in India, the authors create a new data set of comparable indicators of gender disparity. They establish three findings: 1) As is by now well-known, the level of gender disparities in health and education outcomes for girls in South Asia is the highest in the world. 2) Even within South Asia, and within India or Pakistan, there are huge variations in gender disparity. Differences in gender disparity among Indian states or among provinces in Pakistan are typically greater than those among the world's nations. The ratio of female to male child mortality in one Indian state (Haryana) is worse than in any country in the world, although in another state (Tamil Nadu) it is lower than in all but three countries. 3) Across and within the set of developing nations, gender disparity is not only a phenomenon of poverty. There is almost no correlation between per capita income and the gender disparities in health and education outcomes. So although absolute levels of health and education outcomes for girls are strongly related to economic conditions, the disparities between outcomes for girls and boys are not. Understanding what causes such great gender disparity within South Asia is the next pressing question for researchers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1867.

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Date of creation: 31 Jan 1998
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1867

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Keywords: Public Health Promotion; Early Childhood Development; Early Child and Children's Health; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Health Economics&Finance; Health Economics&Finance; Early Child and Children's Health; Adolescent Health; Early Childhood Development; Health Monitoring&Evaluation;

References

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  1. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1982. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Child Survival in Rural India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 803-15, September.
  2. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1997. "Child mortality and public spending on health : how much does money matter?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1864, The World Bank.
  3. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1984. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 521-22, June.
  4. Easterly, William, 1999. " Life during Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 239-76, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Anil B. Deolikar, 2005. "Infant And Under-Five Mortality In India: Levels, Patterns And Correlates," Working Papers id:141, eSocialSciences.
  2. Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2003. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," Discussion Papers in Economics 2, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  3. Jacoby, Hanan G. & Mansuri, Ghazala, 2011. "Crossing boundaries : gender, caste and schooling in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5710, The World Bank.
  4. Wendy Janssens, 2005. "Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 05-017/2, Tinbergen Institute, revised 30 Mar 2006.
  5. World Bank, 2004. "Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in India : How Likely and What Will It Take to Reduce Infant Mortality, Child Malnutrition, Gender Disparities and Hunger-Poverty and to Increase School Enro," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15738, The World Bank.
  6. Michael A. Clemens, 2004. "The Long Walk to School: International education goals in historical perspective," Development and Comp Systems 0403007, EconWPA.
  7. Coady, David & Xinyi Dai & Limin Wang, 2001. "Community programs and women's participation : the Chinese experience," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2622, The World Bank.
  8. Sinha, Nistha & Yoong, Joanne, 2009. "Long-term financial incentives and investment in daughters : evidence from conditional cash transfers in north India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4860, The World Bank.
  9. Joel Negin & Roseline Remans & Susan Karuti & Jessica Fanzo, 2009. "Integrating a broader notion of food security and gender empowerment into the African Green Revolution," The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 351-360, September.
  10. MATTHEW McCARTNEY & AISHA GILL, 2007. "From South Asia to Diaspora: Missing Women and Migration," Working Papers 152, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK.
  11. Filmer, Deon, 2000. "The structure of social disparities in education : gender and wealth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2268, The World Bank.
  12. Wang, Limin, 2002. "Health outcomes in poor countries and policy options : empirical findings from demographic and health surveys," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2831, The World Bank.
  13. World Bank, 2005. "Pakistan : Country Gender Assessment, Bridging the Gender Gap, Opportunities and Challenges," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8453, The World Bank.
  14. Smith, Lisa C. & Byron, Elizabeth M., 2005. "Is greater decisionmaking power of women associated with reduced gender discrimination in South Asia?," FCND discussion papers 200, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  15. Alderman, Harold & King, Elizabeth M., 1998. "Gender differences in parental investment in education," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 453-468, December.
  16. Nikièma, Béatrice & Haddad, Slim & Potvin, Louise, 2008. "Women Bargaining to Seek Healthcare: Norms, Domestic Practices, and Implications in Rural Burkina Faso," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 608-624, April.
  17. Cornia, Giovanni Andrea & Menchini, Leonardo, 2006. "Health Improvements and Health Inequality during the Last 40 Years," Working Paper Series RP2006/10, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  18. Self, Sharmistha & Grabowski, Richard, 2009. "Modernization, inter-caste marriage, and dowry: An analytical perspective," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 69-76, January.
  19. Ueyama, Mika, 2007. "Income growth and gender bias in childhood mortality in developing countries:," IFPRI discussion papers 739, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  20. Hallman, Kelly & Lewis, David & Begum, Suraiya, 2003. "An integrated economic and social analysis to assess the impact of vegetable and fishpond technologies on poverty in rural Bangladesh:," EPTD discussion papers 112, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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