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Intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment, and the reorientation of Eastern European exports

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  • Hoekman, Bernard
  • Djankov, Simeon

Abstract

In the first half of the 1990s exports to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from many Central and Eastern European countries grew rapidly. The authors explore the extent that export growth reflects economic restructuring and changes in trade composition as opposed to redirection of traditional Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) exports to the West. They also investigate vertical intra-industry exchanges role in trade expansion with Western Europe. They find a strong relationship between export performance and growth in vertical intra-industry trade with the European Union (EU). The Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia all rely heavily on the EU for inputs. As their per capita exports to the EU have grown the fastest, this appears to be a successful transition characteristic. The Czech and Slovak Republics registered the highest export growth and the greatest trade pattern reorientation. They have the highest intra-industry trade growth level and rate with the EU, but have undergone the least change in export composition. But substantial changes have occurred in the export composition within traditional export categories. This suggests that Czech and Slovak firms pursueda strategy of upgrading and differentiating traditional exports, relying on EU firms for new machinery, components, and know-how. Simple redirection of goods that were traditionally exported to CMEA markets does not appear to have played an important role in the growth of exports to Western Europe. Export growth is in products that were not exported to the CMEA or in traditional export items that have been substantially upgraded or differentiated. Foreign direct investment inflows correlate highly with intra-industry trade levels. But, excluding the automobile sector, foreign direct investment seems unlikely to have been a major force driving intra-industry trade growth. These exchanges and the underlying integration in the world economy mostly reflect arm's length transactions between Central and Eastern European firms and their European counterparts.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1652.

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Date of creation: 30 Sep 1996
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1652

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Keywords: Agribusiness&Markets; Economic Theory&Research; Trade Policy; Environmental Economics&Policies; Export Competitiveness; Environmental Economics&Policies; Trade Policy; Agribusiness&Markets; Economic Theory&Research; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT;

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References

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  1. Deardorff, A.V., 1995. "Determinants of Bilateral Trade : Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World?," Papers 95-05, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
  2. Hoekman, Bernard & Pohl, Gerhard, 1995. "Enterprise restructuring in Eastern Europe : how much? how fast? where? - preliminary evidence from trade data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1433, The World Bank.
  3. Kaminski, Bartlomiej & DEC, 1994. "The significance of the"Europe agreements"for Central European industrial exports," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1314, The World Bank.
  4. Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Imperfect competition and international trade: Evidence from fourteen industrial countries," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 62-81, March.
  5. Hummels, David & Levinsohn, James, 1995. "Monopolistic Competition and International Trade: Reconsidering the Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 799-836, August.
  6. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
  7. David Greenaway & Robert C. Hine, 1991. "Intra-Industry Specialization, Trade Expansion and Adjustment in the European Economic Space," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(6), pages 603-622, December.
  8. Drábek, Zdenek & Smith, Alasdair, 1995. "Trade Performance and Trade Policy in Central and Eastern Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 1182, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Damien NEVEN, 1994. "Trade Liberalisation with Eastern Nations. How Sensitive ?," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9407, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
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Cited by:
  1. Levkovych, Inna & Luka, Oksana, 2005. "Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products: The Case of Ukraine," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24632, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Jan Winiecki, 2000. "Successes of trade reorientation and expansion in post-communist transition: an enterprise-level approach," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 53(213), pages 187-223.
  3. Tomas Adam & Oxana Babecka Kucharcukova & Jan Babecky & Jan Bruha & Tomas Holub & Eva Hromadkova & David Kocourek & Lubos Komarek & Zlatuse Komarkova & Kamila Kulhava & Petr Kral & Ivana Kubicova & Ji, 2013. "Analyses of the Czech Republic's Current Economic Alignment with the Euro Area 2013," Occasional Publications - Edited Volumes, Czech National Bank, Research Department, number as13 edited by Jakub Mateju & Kamila Kulhava, August.
  4. Tomas Adam & Oxana Babecka Kucharcukova & Jan Babecky & Kamil Galuscak & Tomas Holub & Eva Hromadkova & Narcisa Liliana Kadlcakova & Lubos Komarek & Zlatuse Komarkova & Petr Kral & Ivana Kubicova & Ji, 2012. "Analyses of the Czech Republic's Current Economic Alignment with the Euro Area 2012," Occasional Publications - Edited Volumes, Czech National Bank, Research Department, number as12 edited by Romana Zamazalova & Jakub Mateju, August.
  5. Yener Kandogan, 2004. "How Much Restructuring did the Transition Countries Experience? Evidence from Quality of their Exports," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-637, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  6. Michaël Freudenberg & Françoise Lemoine, 1999. "Central and Eastern European Countries in the International Division of Labour in Europe," Working Papers 1999-05, CEPII research center.
  7. Jan Winiecki, 2000. "Successes of trade reorientation and expansion in post-communist transition: an enterprise-level approach," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 53(213), pages 187-223.
  8. Laura Resmini, 2003. "Economic integration and regional patterns of industry location in transition countries," ERSA conference papers ersa03p399, European Regional Science Association.
  9. Joaquim Oliveira-Martins & Tito Boeri, 2002. "Transition, variété des produits et intégration économique," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 152(1), pages 55-69.
  10. Brahmbhatt, Milan & Srinivasan, T.G. & Murrell, Kim, 1996. "India in the global economy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1681, The World Bank.
  11. J. Caetano & A. Galego & E. Vaz & C. Vieira & I. Vieira, 2002. "The Eastward Enlargement of the Eurozone: Trade and FDI," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp07, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 01 Aug 2002.
  12. Alessia Amighini & Stefano Chiarlone, 2005. "New comparative advantages in the Central and Eastern European countries," LIUC Papers in Economics 182, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
  13. Jan Babecky & Oxana Babetskaia-Kukharchuk & Kamil Galuscak & Dana Hajkova & Jaroslav Hermanek & Tomas Holub & Roman Horvath & Petr Jakubik & Lubos Komarek & Zlatuse Komarkova & Petr Kral & Filip Novot, 2008. "Analyses of the Czech Republic's Current Economic Alignment with the Euro Area 2008," Occasional Publications - Edited Volumes, Czech National Bank, Research Department, number as08 edited by Dana Hajkova, August.

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