Child labor : a review
AbstractOn September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing child labor and should play a key role in its eventual abolition. But other interventions are also needed, including legislative action, appropriate labor market policies, fertility interventions, the adoption of technology, and better job opportunities for parents. There must also be advocates for better conditions for working children and for the empowerment of children and their families. An encouraging consensus is emerging - both in the literature and in the policies of international agencies concerned with child labor - that action, to be effective, must aim first to protect children and improve their living and working conditions. This implies a less stigmatized view of child labor, and the recognition that child labor itself can be used as a targeting device to help children through health, nutrition, schooling, and other interventions. In the long term, the objective of eliminating child labor must be approached through legislative action combined with social and economic incentives that take into account not only the types of child labor and child labor arrangements in a country but that country's institutional and administrative capacity.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1454.
Date of creation: 31 May 1995
Date of revision:
Children and Youth; Labor Policies; Street Children; Environmental Economics&Policies; Public Health Promotion; Health Economics&Finance; Street Children; Youth and Governance; Children and Youth; Environmental Economics&Policies;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cochrane, S. & Kozel, V. & Alderman, H., 1990. "Household consequences of high fertility in Pakistan," World Bank - Discussion Papers, World Bank 111, World Bank.
- Jacoby, Hanan G & Skoufias, Emmanuel, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 311-35, July.
- V. Joseph Hotz & Robert A. Miller, .
"An Empirical Analysis of Life Cycle Fertility and Female Labor Supply,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center, Chicago - Population Research Center
86-15, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Hotz, V Joseph & Miller, Robert A, 1988. "An Empirical Analysis of Life Cycle Fertility and Female Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 56(1), pages 91-118, January.
- Levy, Victor, 1985. "Cropping Pattern, Mechanization, Child Labor, and Fertility Behavior in a Farming Economy: Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(4), pages 777-91, July.
- Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2004.
"Le travail des enfants et la pauvreté en Afrique : un réexamen appliqué au Burkina Faso,"
Documents de travail, Groupe d'Economie du DÃ©veloppement de l'UniversitÃ© Montesquieu Bordeaux IV
96, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
- Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2008. "Le travail des enfants et la pauvreté en Afrique : un réexamen appliqué au Burkina Faso," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, Programme National Persée, vol. 186(5), pages 47-65.
- Agrawal, Nisha, 1996. "The benefits of growth for Indonesian Workers," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1637, The World Bank.
- World Bank, 2001. "Risk Management in South Asia : A Poverty Focused Approach," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15449, The World Bank.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000.
"Is Child Work Necessary?,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers, Econometric Society
0500, Econometric Society.
- Sonia R Bhalotra, 2000. "Is Child Work Necessary?," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics 26, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2000. "Is child work necessary?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library 6652, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Bhalotra, Sonia, 2001. "Is child work necessary?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 24660, The World Bank.
- Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 03/554, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Yacouba Diallo, 2001. "Les déterminants du travail des enfants en Côte d'Ivoire," Documents de travail, Groupe d'Economie du DÃ©veloppement de l'UniversitÃ© Montesquieu Bordeaux IV 55, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
- Delphine Boutin, 2012. "Family farming, child labour and the wealth paradox: evidence from Mali," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(4), pages 3471-3479.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000.
"Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy,"
Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society,
Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999. "Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2116, The World Bank.
- Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Thomas, Saji, 1997. "Ghana's labor market (1987-92)," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1752, The World Bank.
- Sudha Narayanan & Sowmya Dhanraj, 2013. "Child work and schooling in rural north India: What do time use data say about tradeoffs and drivers of human capital investment?," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2013-023, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
- Nkamleu, Guy Blaise, 2006. "Poverty and Child Farm Labor in Africa: Wealth Paradox or bad Orthodoxy," MPRA Paper 15105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Blunch, Niels-Hugo & Verner, Dorte, 2000.
"Revisiting the link between poverty and child labor - the Ghanaian experience,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2488, The World Bank.
- Blunch, Niels-Hugo & Verner, Dorthe, 2001. "Revisiting the Link Between Poverty and Child Labor: The Ghanaian Experience," CLS Working Papers, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research 01-3, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
- Dessy, Sylvain E., 2000. "A defense of compulsive measures against child labor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 261-275, June.
- Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2003. "Child labor and school enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 523-536, October.
- Grootaert, Christiaan, 1998. "Child labor in Cote d'Ivoire: incidence and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1905, The World Bank.
- Mont, Daniel & Nguyen, Cuong, 2013.
"Does Parental Disability Matter to Child Education? Evidence from Vietnam,"
World Development, Elsevier,
Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 88-107.
- Cuong, Nguyen Viet & Mont, Daniel, 2011. "Does parental disability matter to child education ? evidence from Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5743, The World Bank.
- Daniela Zapata & Dante Contreras, 2004. "Child labor in Bolivia: schooling, gender and ethnic groups," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings, Econometric Society 224, Econometric Society.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.