Lessons of trade liberalization in Latin America for economies in transition
AbstractAfter four decades as prime examples of inward-looking trade policies and import-substituting industrialization, several Latin American countries undertook comprehensive trade liberalization and macroeconomic adjustment in the 1980s. The authors contend that the experiences in those countries are relevant for the economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in transition from socialism to market economies. In all of these Latin American countries, the move toward an outward orientation occurred: when the economy was facing a large negative external shock because of falling terms of trade and rising debt payments; after several decades of protectionism; and under severe macroeconomic imbalances. The authors study the reform package of trade liberalization, stabilization, and supporting policies in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay. They conclude that for the economies in transition: Rationalizing the foreign trade regime is crucial for the success of stabilization measures. Rapid, far-reaching reform is possible in sectors that were subject to prolonged periods of heavy protection. Sustained growth requires a comprehensive reform package, with supporting policies for labor, capital, and domestic product markets. Liberalization of the financial sector requires investigating the links between commercial banks and private sector firms. If trade liberalization is to succeed in the long run, it is important to study the evolution of the real exchange rate and measures to stabilize it. In the final section of the paper, the authors study the recent impetus toward trade liberalization through regional arrangements in Latin America. The issue is relevant to countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union because they belonged to the CMEA, a regional trading arrangement, and because such arrangements are evolving anew among countries in the former Soviet Union.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1040.
Date of creation: 30 Nov 1992
Date of revision:
Economic Theory&Research; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Stabilization; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT; Macroeconomic Management;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- TF0 - - - - - -
- FUN - International Economics - - - - -
- OPE - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - - - -
- ADM - General Economics and Teaching - - - - -
- FEE - International Economics - - - - -
- INC - Health, Education, and Welfare - - - - -
- AND - General Economics and Teaching - - - - -
- EXP - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - - - -
- ACC - General Economics and Teaching - - - - -
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Havrylyshyn, Oli, 1990. "Trade Policy and Productivity Gains in Developing Countries: A Survey of the Literature," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 5(1), pages 1-24, January.
- Faini, Riccardo & de Melo, Jaime & Senhadji-Semlali, Abdel & Stanton, Julie, 1990.
"Growth oriented adjustment programs : a statistical analysis,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
426, The World Bank.
- Faini, Riccardo & De Melo, Jaime & Senhadji, Abdelhak & Stanton, Julie, 1991. "Growth-oriented adjustment programs: A statistical analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(8), pages 957-967, August.
- Julio Nogues & Sunil Gulati, 1994. "Economic Policies and Performance Under Alternative Trade Regimes: Latin America During the 1980s," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 467-496, 07.
- de Melo, Jaime & Urata, Shujiro, 1986. "The influence of increased foreign competition on industrial concentration and profitability," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 287-304, September.
- Dani Rodrik, 1993.
"Trade Liberalization in Disinflation,"
NBER Working Papers
4419, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nigel Nagarajan, 1998. "MERCOSUR and Trade Diversion: What Do The Import Figures Tell Us?," European Economy - Economic Papers 129, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.