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Household Energy Demand and the Equity and Efficiency Aspects of Subsidy Reform in Indonesia

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  • Susan Olivia

    (University of California, Davis)

  • John Gibson

    ()
    (University of Waikato)

Abstract

The proper design of price interventions in energy markets requires consideration of equity and efficiency effects. In this paper, budget survey data from 29,000 Indonesian households are used to estimate a demand system for five energy sources, which is identified by the spatial variation in unit values (expenditures divided by quantities). We correct for the various quality and measurement error biases that result when unit values are used as proxies for market prices. The price elasticities are combined with tax and subsidy rates to calculate the marginal social cost of price changes for each item. The results suggest that even with high levels of inequality aversion there is a case for reducing the large subsidies on kerosene in Indonesia, supporting the reforms that have been announced recently.

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File URL: ftp://mngt.waikato.ac.nz/RePEc/wai/econwp/0606.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Waikato, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 06/06.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: 01 Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wai:econwp:06/06

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Keywords: demand elasticities; energy; subsidies; unit values;

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  1. Deaton, Angus, 1988. "Quality, Quantity, and Spatial Variation of Price," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 418-30, June.
  2. Deaton, A., 1990. "Price Elasticities From Surveys Data: Extensions And Indonesian Results," Papers 69, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  3. Nicita, Alessandro, 2004. "Efficiency and equity of a marginal tax reform - income, quality, and price elasticities for Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3266, The World Bank.
  4. Ahmad, Ehtisham & Stern, Nicholas, 1984. "The theory of reform and indian indirect taxes," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 259-298, December.
  5. Kunal Sen & Liesbet Steer, 2005. "Survey of recent developments," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(3), pages 279-304.
  6. John Creedy, 1996. "Measuring Income Inequality," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 29(2), pages 236-246.
  7. David M. Newbery, 2005. "Why Tax Energy? Towards a More Rational Policy," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 1-40.
  8. Pitt, Mark M., 1985. "Equity, externalities and energy subsidies The case of kerosine in Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 201-217, April.
  9. Madden, David, 1996. "Marginal Tax Reform and the Specification of Consumer Demand Systems," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 48(4), pages 556-67, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Rao, Narasimha D., 2013. "Distributional impacts of climate change mitigation in Indian electricity: The influence of governance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1344-1356.
  2. Ngui, Dianah & Mutua, John & Osiolo, Hellen & Aligula, Eric, 2011. "Household energy demand in Kenya: An application of the linear approximate almost ideal demand system (LA-AIDS)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7084-7094.
  3. Park, Hojeong & Kwon, Hyucksoo, 2011. "Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: A case study for anthracites in Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1687-1693, March.
  4. Mathew Adagunodo, 2013. "Petroleum Products Pricing Reform in Nigeria: Welfare Analysis from Household Budget Survey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(4), pages 459 - 472.
  5. Arthur, Maria de Fátima S.R. & Bond, Craig A. & Willson, Bryan, 2012. "Estimation of elasticities for domestic energy demand in Mozambique," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 398-409.

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