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Convergence of outcomes and evolution of strategic behavior in double auctions

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Author Info

  • Shira Fano

    ()
    (Dept. of Applied Mathematics, University of Venice)

  • Marco Li Calzi

    ()
    (Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Advanced School of Economics, University of Venice)

  • Paolo Pellizzari

    ()
    (Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Advanced School of Economics, University of Venice)

Abstract

We study the emergence of strategic behavior in double auctions with an equal number n of buyers and sellers, under the distinct assumptions that orders are cleared simultaneously or asynchronously. The evolution of strategic behavior is modeled as a learning process driven by a genetic algorithm. We find that, as the size n of the market grows, allocative inefficiency tends to zero and performance converges to the competitive outcome, regardless of the order-clearing rule. The main result concerns the evolution of strategic behavior. Under simultaneous order-clearing, as n increases, only marginal traders learn to be price takers and make offers equal to their valuations/costs. Under asynchronous order-clearing, as n increases, all intramarginal traders learn to be price makers and make offers equal to the competitive equilibrium price. The nature of the order-clearing rule affects in a fundamental way what kind of strategic behavior we should expect to emerge.

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File URL: http://virgo.unive.it/wpideas/storage/2010wp196.pdf
File Function: First version, 2010
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Applied Mathematics, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia in its series Working Papers with number 196.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: Forthcoming in Journal of Evolutionary Economics
Handle: RePEc:vnm:wpaper:196

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Keywords: Trading protocols; asymptotic equivalence; learning; genetic algorithms.;

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  1. Rustichini, Aldo & Satterthwaite, Mark A & Williams, Steven R, 1994. "Convergence to Efficiency in a Simple Market with Incomplete Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(5), pages 1041-63, September.
  2. Lettau, Martin, 1997. "Explaining the facts with adaptive agents: The case of mutual fund flows," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 1117-1147, June.
  3. Anufriev, M. & Arifovic, J. & Ledyard, D. & Panchenko, V., 2010. "Efficiency of Continuous Double Auctions under Individual Evolutionary Learning with Full or Limited Information," CeNDEF Working Papers 10-01, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
  4. Zhan, Wenjie & Friedman, Daniel, 2007. "Markups in double auction markets," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2984-3005, September.
  5. Shira Fano & Marco LiCalzi & Paolo Pellizzari, 2013. "Convergence of outcomes and evolution of strategic behavior in double auctions," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 513-538, July.
  6. Mendelson, Haim, 1985. "Random competitive exchange: Price distributions and gains from trade," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 254-280, December.
  7. Myerson, Roger B. & Satterthwaite, Mark A., 1983. "Efficient mechanisms for bilateral trading," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 265-281, April.
  8. Leininger, W. & Linhart, P. B. & Radner, R., 1989. "Equilibria of the sealed-bid mechanism for bargaining with incomplete information," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 63-106, June.
  9. Gode, Dhananjay K & Sunder, Shyam, 1993. "Allocative Efficiency of Markets with Zero-Intelligence Traders: Market as a Partial Substitute for Individual Rationality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(1), pages 119-37, February.
  10. Dawid, Herbert, 1999. "On the convergence of genetic learning in a double auction market," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 23(9-10), pages 1545-1567, September.
  11. Roberto Cervone & Stefano Galavotti & Marco LiCalzi, 2009. "Symmetric Equilibria in Double Auctions with Markdown Buyers and Markup Sellers," Working Papers 187, Department of Applied Mathematics, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
  12. Mark A. Satterthwaite & Steven R. Williams, 2002. "The Optimality of a Simple Market Mechanism," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 1841-1863, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Shira Fano & Marco LiCalzi & Paolo Pellizzari, 2013. "Convergence of outcomes and evolution of strategic behavior in double auctions," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 513-538, July.
  2. Ruijgrok, Matthijs, 2012. "A single-item continuous double auction game," MPRA Paper 42086, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Shira Fano & Paolo Pellizzari, 2011. "Time-dependent trading strategies in a continuous double auction," Working Papers 2011_03, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
  4. Giulio Bottazzi & Pietro Dindo, 2013. "Evolution and market behavior in economics and finance: introduction to the special issue," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 507-512, July.
  5. Anufriev, M. & Arifovic, J. & Ledyard, D. & Panchenko, V., 2010. "Efficiency of Continuous Double Auctions under Individual Evolutionary Learning with Full or Limited Information," CeNDEF Working Papers 10-01, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
  6. Florian Hauser & Marco LiCalzi, 2011. "Learning to trade in an unbalanced market," Working Papers 2, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
  7. Paolo Pellizzari, 2011. "Optimal trading in a limit order book using linear strategies," Working Papers 2011_16, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari", revised Sep 2011.

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