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Gender Convergence in Crime: Evidence From Canadian Adult Offence Charge Data

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Abstract

This paper contributes new evidence relating to the hypothesis that there has been convergence between certain male and female offences over time. Using time-series data for adults charged with offences in Canada over the period 1983 to 2000, we conduct several formal econometric tests of the convergence hypothesis. This study allows for the non-stationarity of the data; structural breaks in some of the time-series; and it employs several new tests that have not previously been applied to this problem. Our results provide the first strong evidence of gender-convergence for a range of offences in Canada.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of Victoria in its series Econometrics Working Papers with number 0303.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: 28 Apr 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:vic:vicewp:0303

Note: ISSN 1485-6441
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Postal: PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, Canada, V8W 2Y2
Phone: (250)721-6197
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Web page: http://web.uvic.ca/econ
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Keywords: Convergence; crime; gender;

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  1. Bernard, Andrew B & Durlauf, Steven N, 1995. "Convergence in International Output," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 97-108, April-Jun.
  2. Kaddour Hadri, 1999. "Testing For Stationarity In Heterogeneous Panel Data," Research Papers, University of Liverpool Management School 1999_04, University of Liverpool Management School.
  3. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
  4. Gary S. Becker, 1968. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76, pages 169.
  5. Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University 979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  6. Kurozumi, Eiji, 2002. "Testing for stationarity with a break," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 63-99, May.
  7. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
  8. Attila Hornok & Rolf Larsson, 2000. "The finite sample distribution of the KPSS test," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(1), pages 108-121.
  9. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
  10. Banerjee, Anindya & Dolado, Juan J. & Galbraith, John W. & Hendry, David, 1993. "Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288107, October.
  11. Greasley, David & Oxley, Les, 1997. "Time-series based tests of the convergence hypothesis: Some positive results," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 143-147, October.
  12. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  13. Freeman, Richard B., 1999. "The economics of crime," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 52, pages 3529-3571 Elsevier.
  14. Austin, Roy L., 1993. "Recent trends in official male and female crime rates: The convergence controversy," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 447-466.
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Cited by:
  1. Bowles, Roger Arthur & Florackis, Chrisostomos, 2007. "Duration of the time to reconviction: Evidence from UK prisoner discharge data," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 365-378.
  2. Hui Feng & David E. Giles, 2009. "Bayesian Fuzzy Regression Analysis and Model Selection: Theory and Evidence," Econometrics Working Papers, Department of Economics, University of Victoria 0903, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.

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