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Behavioral Conformity in Games with Many Players

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Author Info

  • Myrna Wooders

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University)

  • Edward Cartwright

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Keynes College, University of Kent)

  • Reinhard Selten

    (Department of Economics, University of Bonn)

Abstract

In the literature of psychology and economics it is frequently observed that individuals tend to conform in their behavior to the behavior of similar individuals. A fundamental question is whether the outcome of such behavior can be consistent with self-interest. We propose that this consistency requires the existence of a Nash or approximate Nash equilibrium that induces a partition of the player set into relatively few societies, each consisting of similar individuals playing the same or similar strategies. In this paper we introduce a notion of a society and characterize a family of games admitting the existence of such an equilibrium. We also introduce the concept of 'crowding types' into our description of players and distinguish between the crowding type of a player -- those characteristics of a player that have direct effects on others -- and his tastes, taken to directly affect only that player. With the assumptions of 'within crowding type anonymity' and 'linearity of taste-types' we show that the number of groups can be uniformly bounded.

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File URL: http://www.accessecon.com/pubs/VUECON/vu05-w13.pdf
File Function: First version, 2005
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Vanderbilt University Department of Economics in its series Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers with number 0513.

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Date of creation: Apr 2005
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Handle: RePEc:van:wpaper:0513

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Web page: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/econ/wparchive/index.html

Related research

Keywords: Behavioral conformity; noncooperative games; pregames; Nash equilibrium; purification; social norms; behavioral norms;

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References

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  1. Ehud Kalai, 2002. "Large Robust Games," Discussion Papers 1350, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  2. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1994. "Equivalence of Games and Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(5), pages 1141-60, September.
  3. Conley, John P. & Wooders, Myrna H., 2001. "Tiebout Economies with Differential Genetic Types and Endogenously Chosen Crowding Characteristics," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 261-294, June.
  4. Ehud Kalai, 2000. "Private Information in Large Games," Discussion Papers 1312, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  5. Cartwright, Edward, 2003. "Learning To Play Approximate Nash Equilibria In Games With Many Players," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 671, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  6. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1984. "On a theorem of Schmeidler," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 201-206, December.
  7. Wooders, M. & Selten, R. & Cartwright, E., 2001. "Some First Results for Noncooperative Pregames : Social Conformity and Equilibrium in Pure Strategies," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 589, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  8. Rui Pascoa, Mario, 1993. "Approximate equilibrium in pure strategies for non-atomic games," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 223-241.
  9. Grandmont, Jean-Michel, 1978. "Intermediate Preferences and the Majority Rule," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(2), pages 317-30, March.
  10. Bernheim, B Douglas, 1994. "A Theory of Conformity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(5), pages 841-77, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Edward Cartwright & Myrna Wooders, 2009. "On equilibrium in pure strategies in games with many players," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 137-153, March.
  2. Cartwright, Edward, 2009. "Social norms: Does it matter whether agents are rational or boundedly rational?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 403-410, June.
  3. Carmona, Guilherme, 2007. "Intermediate Preferences and Behavioral Conformity in Large Games," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp523, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  4. Grajzl, Peter & Baniak, Andrzej, 2012. "Mandating behavioral conformity in social groups with conformist members," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 479-493.
  5. Gradwohl, Ronen & Reingold, Omer, 2010. "Partial exposure in large games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 602-613, March.
  6. Edward Cartwright & Myrna Wooders, 2008. "Behavioral Properties of Correlated Equilibrium; Social Group Structures with Conformity and Stereotyping," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0814, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  7. Carmona, Guilherme, 2008. "Purification of Bayesian-Nash equilibria in large games with compact type and action spaces," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(12), pages 1302-1311, December.
  8. Daniel S Hamermesh & Michael C Burda & Philippe Weil, 2008. "Different but Equal: Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/8642, Sciences Po.
  9. Carmona, Guilherme & Podczeckz, Konrad, 2008. "On the Existence of Pure-Strategy Equilibria in Large Games," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp531, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  10. Azrieli, Yaron, 2009. "Categorizing others in a large game," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 351-362, November.

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