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The Cost of Heterogeneity in a Monetary Union

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  • Andrew Hughes Hallett

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University and University of Strathclyde, UK)

  • Diana N. Weymark

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt Unviersity)

Abstract

In this paper, we explore whether heterogeneity among union members could threaten the stability of the EMU. The types of heterogeneity we consider are (1) asymmetries in the transmission of monetary and fiscal policies, and (2) differences in national preferences for price stability, output growth, and income redistribution. Our results show that the costs of membership are cumulative and can be significant for countries whose structure and/or preferences deviate from those underlying the common monetary policy. In part, these costs arise because monetary policy imposed by an independent central bank automatically constrains the use of fiscal policy by national governments.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Vanderbilt University Department of Economics in its series Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers with number 0128.

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Date of creation: Dec 2001
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Handle: RePEc:van:wpaper:0128

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Web page: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/econ/wparchive/index.html

Related research

Keywords: Central bank independence; currency union; EMU; monetary union; preference assymmetries; transmission asymmetries;

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References

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  1. Francesco Giavazzi & Marco Pagano, 1991. "The Advantage of Tying One's Hands: EMS Discipline and Central Bank Credibility," NBER Chapters, in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 303-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Ramana Ramaswamy & Torsten Sløk, 1998. "The Real Effects of Monetary Policy in the European Union: What Are the Differences?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(2), pages 374-396, June.
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  4. Sibert, Anne, 1999. "Monetary Integration and Economic Reform," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(452), pages 78-92, January.
  5. Dixit, Avinash, 2001. "Games of monetary and fiscal interactions in the EMU," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 589-613, May.
  6. Agell, Jonas, 1999. "On the Benefits from Rigid Labour Markets: Norms, Market Failures, and Social Insurance," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(453), pages F143-64, February.
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  8. Mads Kieler & Tuomas Saarenheimo, 1998. "Differences in monetary policy transmission? A case not closed," European Economy - Economic Papers 132, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  9. Jacob Frenkel & Morris Goldstein & Paul Masson, 1990. "The Rationale for, and Effects of, International Economic Policy Coordination," NBER Chapters, in: International Policy Coordination and Exchange Rate Fluctuations, pages 9-62 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  12. Alan Krueger, 1999. "From Bismarck to Maastricht: The March to European Union and the Labor Compact," Working Papers 803, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
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  14. Calmfors, Lars, 2001. "Unemployment, Labor Market Reform, and Monetary Union," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(2), pages 265-89, April.
  15. Calmfors, L., 1998. "Macroeconomic Policy, Wage Setting and Employment -What Differences Does the EMU Make?," Papers 657, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  16. Stephen G. Cecchetti, 1999. "Legal Structure, Financial Structure, and the Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism," NBER Working Papers 7151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. De Grauwe, Paul, 1995. "Alternative strategies towards monetary union," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 483-491, April.
  18. Gilles Oudiz & Jeffrey Sachs, 1984. "Macroeconomic Policy Coordination among the Industrial Economies," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 15(1), pages 1-76.
  19. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1973. "Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation Tradeoffs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(3), pages 326-34, June.
  20. Demertzis, Maria & Hughes Hallett, Andrew, 1999. "An Independent Central Bank Faced With Elected Governments," CEPR Discussion Papers 2219, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Alexandra Lopes, 2006. "The Costs of EMU for Transition Countries," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 149, Society for Computational Economics.
  2. Diana N. Weymark, 2001. "Inflation, Income Redistribution, and Optimal Central Bank Independence," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0102, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  3. Diana N. Weymark, 2005. "Inflation, Government Transfers, and Optimal Central Bank Independence," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0502, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  4. Sondermann, David, 2012. "Productivity in the euro area: any evidence of convergence?," Working Paper Series 1431, European Central Bank.
  5. Robert-Paul Berben & Jan Marc Berk & Ekniti Nitihanprapas & Kanit Sangsuphan & Pisit Puapan & Piyaporn Sodsriwiboon, 2003. "Requirements for successful currency regimes: The Dutch and Thai experiences," DNB Occasional Studies 101, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  6. Kwanho Shin & Yunjong Wang, 2003. "Monetary Integration Ahead of Trade Integration in East Asia?," ISER Discussion Paper 0572, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  7. Andrew Hughes Hallett & Diana N. Weymark, 2002. "Independence Before Conservatism: Transparency, Politics, and Central Bank Design," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0202, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  8. Andrew Hughes Hallett & Diana N. Weymark, 2002. "Government Leadership and Central Bank Design," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0208, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics, revised Dec 2004.
  9. Andrew Hughes Hallett & Diana N. Weymark, 2002. "Policy Games and the Optimal Design of Central Banks," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0220, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  10. Andre, Nyembwe, 2003. "Monetary Policy, Credibility and Asymmetries : Small African Countries and the EMU Advent," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2003011, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), revised 06 Aug 2002.
  11. Schalck, Christophe, 2012. "Investigating heterogeneity in European fiscal behaviours," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(4), pages 383-390.
  12. Belhadj, Aam, 2009. "Heterogeneity of the Maghreb: the results of optimized monetary rules," MPRA Paper 40374, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Andrew Hughes Hallett & Diana N. Weymark, 2003. "Independent Monetary Policies and Social Equality," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0307, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  14. Rasmus Fatum, 2003. "One Monetary Policy and Eighteen Central Bankers: The European Monetary Policy as a Game of Strategic Delegation," EPRU Working Paper Series 03-19, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  15. Jan Marc Berk & Job Swank, 2002. "Regional Price Adjustment in a Monetary Union," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-077/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  16. Jan Marc Berk & Job Swank, 2002. "Regional Price Adjustment in a Monetary Union the Case of EMU," MEB Series (discontinued) 2002-7, Netherlands Central Bank, Monetary and Economic Policy Department.
  17. Jan Marc Berk & Job Swank, 2002. "Regional Price Adjustment in a Monetary Union," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-077/2, Tinbergen Institute.

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