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Evaluating Tax Reform in Vietnam Using General Equilibrium Methods

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Abstract

In this paper we use a general equilibrium model of Vietnam, calibrated to 1995 data, to analyze tax reform options for Vietnam. We focus on aggregate welfare impacts as well as welfare of household groups ranked by income. The main focus is on indirect tax reform (VAT), but we also examine reforms in the external sector given both the revenue importance of the tariff and the role of tariffs in protecting domestic industry. Our numerical general equilibrium model is used to perform a series of counterfactual experiments around the 1995 base data, and we use a small country assumption with Armington differentiation between imports and domestic products. Results indicate that there are gains to Vietnam from indirect tax reform, but the redistributive effects associated with these reforms are large and tend to swamp the aggregate effects. There is a sharp redistribution against those with lower income and who spend a significant fraction of their income on previously non-taxed products, and redistribution in favour of those spending larger fractions of their income on earlier high taxed products; especially the richer households. This theme of regressivity of indirect tax reform comes through even more strongly in the case of international trade based reforms involving the tariff than is the case for domestic sales tax reform.

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Paper provided by University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics in its series UWO Department of Economics Working Papers with number 9906.

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Date of creation: Apr 1999
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Handle: RePEc:uwo:uwowop:9906

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Postal: Department of Economics, Reference Centre, Social Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2
Phone: 519-661-2111 Ext.85244
Web page: http://economics.uwo.ca/research/research_papers/department_working_papers.html

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  1. Bhattarai, Keshab & Ghosh, Madanmohan & Whalley, John, 1999. "On some properties of a trade closure widely used in numerical modelling," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 13-21, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Madanmohan Ghosh & John Whalley, 2000. "State-Owned Enterprises, Shirking and Trade Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 7696, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. John Cockburn, 2002. "Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Nepal: A Computable General Equilibrium Micro Simulation Analysis," CSAE Working Paper Series 2002-11, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  3. Abbott, Philip & Bentzen, Jeanet & Huong, Thi Lan & Tarp, Finn, 2007. "A Critical Review of Studies on the Social and Economic Impacts of Vietnam’s International Economic Integration," MPRA Paper 29789, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Nielsen, Chantal Pohl, 2002. "Social accounting matrices for Vietnam 1996 and 1997," TMD discussion papers 86, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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