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Heterogeneity, Bounded Rationality and Market Dysfunctionality

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As the main building blocks of the modern finance theory, homogeneity and rational expectation have faced difficulty in explaining many market anomalies, stylized factors, and market inefficiency in empirical studies. As a result, heterogeneity and bounded rationality have been used as an alterative paradigm of asset price dynamics and this paradigm has been widely recognized recently in both academic and financial market practitioners. Within the framework of Chiarella, Dieci and He (2006a, 2006b) on mean-variance analysis under heterogeneous beliefs in terms of either the payoffs or returns of the risky assets, this paper examines the effect of the heterogeneity. We first demonstrate that, in market equilibrium, the standard one fund theorem under homogeneous belief does not held under heterogeneous belief in general, however, the optimal portfolios of investors are very close to the market efficient frontier. By imposing certain distribution assumption on the heterogeneous beliefs, we then use Monte Carlo simulations to show that certain heterogeneity among investors can improve the Sharpe and Treynor ratios of the portfolios and investors can benefit from the diversity in investors’ beliefs. We also show that non-normality of market equilibrium return distributions is an outcome of the market aggregation of individual investors who make rational decisions based on their beliefs. Our results explain the empirical funding that that managed funds under-perform the market index on average and show that heterogeneity can improve the market efficiency.

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Paper provided by Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney in its series Research Paper Series with number 233.

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Length: 44
Date of creation: 01 Oct 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uts:rpaper:233

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Keywords: heterogeneity; bounded rationality; heterogeneous CAPM; mean-variance efficiency; Sharpe and Treynor ratios;

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  1. Williams, Joseph T., 1977. "Capital asset prices with heterogeneous beliefs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 219-239, November.
  2. Bart, John & Masse, Isidore J., 1981. "Divergence of Opinion and Risk," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(01), pages 23-34, March.
  3. Detemple Jerome & Murthy Shashidhar, 1994. "Intertemporal Asset Pricing with Heterogeneous Beliefs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 294-320, April.
  4. Rubinstein, Mark, 1974. "An aggregation theorem for securities markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 225-244, September.
  5. Carl Chiarella & Xue-Zhong He & Roberto Dieci & University of Technology Sydney, 2006. "A Dynamic Heterogeneous Beliefs CAPM," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 181, Society for Computational Economics.
  6. Andrew B. Abel, . "Asset Prices Under Heterogenous Beliefs: Implications for the Equity Premium," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 9-89, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  7. Karl B. Diether & Christopher J. Malloy & Anna Scherbina, 2002. "Differences of Opinion and the Cross Section of Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2113-2141, October.
  8. Abel, Andrew B., 2002. "An exploration of the effects of pessimism and doubt on asset returns," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(7-8), pages 1075-1092, July.
  9. Rubinstein, Mark, 1976. "The Strong Case for the Generalized Logarithmic Utility Model as the Premier Model of Financial Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 551-71, May.
  10. Carl Chiarella & Roberto Dieci & Xue-Zhong He, 2006. "Aggregation of Heterogeneous Beliefs and Asset Pricing Theory: A Mean-Variance Analysis," Research Paper Series 186, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  11. Miller, Edward M, 1977. "Risk, Uncertainty, and Divergence of Opinion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1151-68, September.
  12. Zapatero, Fernando, 1998. "Effects of financial innovations on market volatility when beliefs are heterogeneous," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 597-626, April.
  13. Timothy C. Johnson, 2004. "Forecast Dispersion and the Cross Section of Expected Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 1957-1978, October.
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