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Measuring the Carbon Content of the South African Economy

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  • Arndt, Channing
  • Makrelov, Konstantin
  • Thurlow, James

Abstract

We estimate the carbon intensity of industries, products, and households in South Africa. Direct and indirect carbon usage is measured using multiplier methods that capture inter-industry linkages and multi-product supply chains. Carbon intensity is found to be high for exports but low for major employing sectors. Middle-income households are the most carbon-intensive consumers. These results suggest that carbon pricing policies (without border tax adjustments) would adversely affect export earnings, but should not disproportionately hurt workers or poorer households. 7per cent of emissions arise though marketing margins, implying that carbon pricing should be accompanied by supporting public policies and investments.

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File URL: http://www.wider.unu.edu/stc/repec/pdfs/wp2011/wp2011-045.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) in its series Working Paper Series with number UNU-WIDER Research Paper WP2011/45.

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Length: 29
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2011-45

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Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions; carbon use; input-output analysis; South Africa;

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References

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  1. Leontief, Wassily, 1970. "Environmental Repercussions and the Economic Structure: An Input-Output Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(3), pages 262-71, August.
  2. McGregor, Peter G. & Swales, J. Kim & Turner, Karen, 2008. "The CO2 'trade balance' between Scotland and the rest of the UK: Performing a multi-region environmental input-output analysis with limited data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(4), pages 662-673, July.
  3. Manfred Lenzen & Lise-Lotte Pade & Jesper Munksgaard, 2004. "CO2 Multipliers in Multi-region Input-Output Models," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 391-412.
  4. Su, Bin & Ang, B.W., 2010. "Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: The effects of spatial aggregation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 10-18, November.
  5. Robbie Andrew & Glen Peters & James Lennox, 2009. "Approximation And Regional Aggregation In Multi-Regional Input-Output Analysis For National Carbon Footprint Accounting," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(3), pages 311-335.
  6. Rueda-Cantuche, José M. & Amores, Antonio F., 2010. "Consistent and unbiased carbon dioxide emission multipliers: Performance of Danish emission reductions via external trade," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 988-998, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Alton, Theresa & Arndt, Channing & Davies, Rob & Hartley, Faaiqa & Makrelov, Konstantin, 2012. "The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  2. Resnick, Danielle & Tarp, Finn & Thurlow, James, 2012. "The Political Economy of Green Growth: Illustrations from Southern Africa," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

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