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What affects international migration of European science and engineering graduates?

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  • Grip Andries de
  • Fouarge Didier
  • Sauermann Jan

    (ROA rm)

Abstract

In public policy, international migration of scientists and engineers is often seen as achance of recruiting the most talented and productive workers. However, it can alsobe a risk in terms of loosing a country’s talented workers. In this paper, we analysemigration of graduates from science and engineering studies from nine Europeancountries. Using a dataset with information on personal characteristics, previousmigration experience, as well as study- and work-related variables, we analyse thedeterminants of migrating to the country of the first job and to the country of subsequentjobs after graduation. We find that not only wage gains are driving the migrationdecision. Differences in labour market opportunities related to R&D spending area strong predictor of future migration. Furthermore, past migration experiences arerelated to a higher probability of labour migration. Moreover, we find evidence ofselective migration: the best graduates are most likely to migrate. Contrary to ourexpectation, qualitative aspects of the job match such as the utilisation of skills in thejob and involvement in innovation hardly seem to matter in the decision whetheror not to migrate. Interestingly, the wage level affects migration towards countriesin continental Europe, whereas Anglo-Saxon countries seem to attract migrants duetheir larger R&D intensity.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA) in its series ROA Research Memorandum with number 006.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:unm:umaror:2008006

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Keywords: education; training and the labour market;

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References

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  1. Matthias Parey & Fabian Waldinger, 2011. "Studying Abroad and the Effect on International Labour Market Mobility: Evidence from the Introduction of ERASMUS," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(551), pages 194-222, March.
  2. Amelie Constant & Elena D'Agosto, 2008. "Where Do the Brainy Italians Go?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 763, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    • Amelie F. Constant & Elena D’Agosto, 2010. "Where Do the Brainy Italians Go?," AIEL Series in Labour Economics, in: Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore (ed.), The Labour Market Impact of the EU Enlargement. A New Regional Geography of Europe?, edition 1, chapter 10, pages 247-271 AIEL - Associazione Italiana Economisti del Lavoro.
  3. de Grip, Andries & Willems, Ed, 2003. "Youngsters and technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 1771-1781, December.
  4. Frederic, DOCQUIER & Hillel, RAPOPORT, 2007. "Silled migration : the perspectives of developing countries," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2007017, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  5. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
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  8. Thomas Liebig & Alfonso Sousa-Poza, 2004. "Migration, Self-Selection and Income Inequality: An International Analysis," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(1), pages 125-146, 02.
  9. George J. Borjas, 2006. "Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(2).
  10. Richard B. Freeman, 2006. "Does Globalization of the Scientific/Engineering Workforce Threaten U.S. Economic Leadership?," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 6, pages 123-158 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
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  14. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
  15. Alessandra Faggian & Philip McCann & Stephen Sheppard, 2007. "Some Evidence That Women Are More Mobile Than Men: Gender Differences In U.K. Graduate Migration Behavior," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(3), pages 517-539.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Edler, Jakob & Fier, Heide & Grimpe, Christoph, 2011. "International scientist mobility and the locus of knowledge and technology transfer," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 791-805, July.
  2. Rashidi, Sheida & Pyka, Andreas, 2013. "Migration and innovation: A survey," FZID Discussion Papers 77-2013, University of Hohenheim, Center for Research on Innovation and Services (FZID).
  3. Carlos Iglesias Fernández & Raquel Llorente Heras & Diego Dueñas Fernández, 2011. "La movilidad international de los doctores españoles: ¿cuáles son sus determinantes?," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 6, in: Antonio Caparrós Ruiz (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 37, pages 593-611 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
  4. Marcin Holda & Katarzyna Saczuk & Pawel Strzelecki & Robert Wyszynski, 2011. "Settlers and Guests - Determinants of the Plans of Return Migration from UK and Ireland to Poland in the Period 2007-2009," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 84, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  5. Richard B. Freeman, 2014. "Immigration, International Collaboration, and Innovation: Science and Technology Policy in the Global Economy," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 15 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Raul Eamets & Jaan Masso & Pille Motsmees, 2013. "The Effect of Migration Experience on Occupational Mobility in Estonia," Discussion Papers 14, Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI).
  7. Richard B. Freeman, 2010. "What Does Global Expansion of Higher Education Mean for the United States?," NBER Chapters, in: American Universities in a Global Market, pages 373-404 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Edward Bergman, 2011. "Hirschmann Mobility Among Academics of Highly Ranked EU Research Universities," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1134, European Regional Science Association.
  9. Hercog, Metka & Van de Laar, Mindel, 2013. "What's the best place for me? Location-choice for S&E students in India," MERIT Working Papers 066, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  10. Jeffrey Grogger & Gordon H. Hanson, 2013. "Attracting Talent: Location Choices of Foreign-Born PhDs in the US," NBER Working Papers 18780, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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