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Cross-border coordination in the Madagascar-EU lychee chain: the role of GlobalGAP

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  • Bignebat, C.
  • Vagneron, I.

Abstract

Madagascar has a tradition of agricultural trade (coffee, vanilla, cloves). In the 90s, the country started developing non-traditional exports, such as lychees, to the European Union (EU), thereby generating substantial cash revenues for small producers. In 2005, access to the EU market became more difficult, due to more stringent quality requirements and to the growing use of the private retailer standard GlobalGAP. Whereas the empirical literature on private standards presents GlobalGAP either as a success story or a threat for small producers, the case of Madagascar exhibits a specific dynamics: after booming in 2007, GlobalGAP is actually collapsing. The aim of this article is to disentangle the mechanisms of this evolution and to draw some conclusions regarding market access enhancement through private standards. This work is based on semi-structured interviews carried out with all stakeholders of the export chain, government agencies and programs supporting lychee production and on weekly data on lychee trade flows (2001-2010). Using a global value chain approach, we first show the importance of the chain structure: importers are identified as lead-firms (conversely to most studies dealing with private certification) in an environment characterized by low competition at the international level. We then evaluate the role of donors and trade facilitators as actors of the chain. After giving evidence for the collapse of GlobalGAP, we assess what is left of the GlobalGAP procurement system once it has been abandoned: stabilization of the relationship between exporters and producers and thus enhanced traceability, upgrading of private marketing infrastructures, improved management discipline. We conclude that in the Madagascar lychee chain, although GlobalGAP had little impact on market access.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France in its series Working Papers MOISA with number 201106.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:201106

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Related research

Keywords: PRIVATE CERTIFICATION; GLOBAL CHAINS; NON-TARIFF MEASURES; FOREIGN AID; NON-TRADITIONAL EXPORTS;

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References

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  1. Nava Ashraf & Xavier Giné & Dean Karlan, 2008. "Finding Missing Markets (and a disturbing epilogue): Evidence from an Export Crop Adoption and Marketing Intervention in Kenya," Working Papers 967, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  2. Johan F.M. Swinnen & Scott Rozelle & Tao Xiang & Thijs Vandemoortele, 2008. "A Theory of Standards-Driven Rural Development," LICOS Discussion Papers 19908, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  3. Cadot, Olivier & Jaud, Mélise, 2011. "A Second Look at the Pesticides Initiative Program: Evidence from Senegal," CEPR Discussion Papers 8429, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Minot, Nicholas & Ngigi, Margaret, 2004. "Are horticultural exports a replicable success story?," MTID discussion papers 73, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  5. Sandri, Damiano & Valenzuela, Ernesto & Anderson, Kym, 2007. "Economic And Trade Indicators For Asia, 1960 To 2004," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48435, World Bank.
  6. Henson, Spencer & Masakure, Oliver & Cranfield, John, 2011. "Do Fresh Produce Exporters in Sub-Saharan Africa Benefit from GlobalGAP Certification?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 375-386, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Schuster, Monica & Maertens, Miet, 2013. "Food Standards, Heterogeneous Firms and Developing Countries’ Export Performance," Working Papers 152084, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  2. Schuster, Monica & Maertens, Miet, 2013. "Do private standards create exclusive supply chains? New evidence from the Peruvian asparagus export sector," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 291-305.

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